Zwingli’s Entry into the Priesthood

glarusAccording to Jackson

On Michaelmas day, which that year (1506) came on Tuesday, September 29th, he read his first mass in the parish church at Wildhaus. He then went to Glarus.

Or more fully, according to West

At ten years of age Zwingli was sent to Basel to study and then to Bern and Vienna (at around fifteen years of age) where he earned a Bachelor’s degree. By 1506 he had earned a Master of Arts at Basel’s famous University and then shortly after celebrated his first Mass at his hometown before moving to Glarus to take up his priestly office. It was while he was in that picturesque village that Zwingli poured himself into his studies of the Bible, led by the urgings of Erasmus, who was then the leader of learning in Switzerland and across western Europe. According to his own testimony, it was in 1515 that the ‘reformatory’ spirit began to stir in his heart so that when he moved to Einsiedeln (in 1516) to serve the congregation there, he was already pursuing the beginnings of Reformed thought.

Happy First Mass Day, Huldrych, and thank Heaven that you left that superstition behind by 1520.

Assuaging Rhegius’s Doubts

zwingli_ducatZwingli’s book on Original Sin had appeared in August of 1526.  His friend Rhegius read it but had some questions about it and was concerned that persons of less than adequate intellect might find in it hints of Origenism.  On 28 September of the same year he expressed these thoughts to Zwingli.

Zwingli replied in a letter of 16 October, 1526 as follows:

Recte putavisti, excidisse nobis, doctissime Urbane, Origenem in hac fuisse sententia, quem ante omnes olim diligentissime in his saltem, quae hodie circumferuntur, legimus. Sed oblivionis haec arbitror causa fuit, quod cacodęmonibus quiddam promittere videtur, quos in rationem nostram non admittimus. Hi enim per Adamum non corruerunt, igitur neque resurgent per Christum. Verba Marci [Marc. 16. 15f.] synecdochica sunt, ac de iis modo intelliguntur, qui audito euangelio non crediderunt.

Praecessit enim: “Praedicate euangelium”. Qui ergo praedicato euangelio credunt, inter beatos locantur; et contra, qui praedicato euangelio non credunt, diris mancipantur. Neque hoc electioni praeiudicat. Nam et qui ad Christum veniunt, per patrem huc trahuntur: haec est electio; et qui ad patrem veniunt, ab ipso eliguntur. Sic tamen, ut per Christum, salutis pignus, ad se tandem veniant, cum eis fruendum est perpetuis bonis.

Firmam enim esse oportet electionem, etiamsi, qui eliguntur, per unicum Christum adducantur. Eligi enim oportet eos quoque, qui ad Christum veniunt, et electos per eum in gloriam regni ingredi. Ipse enim est via, veritas et vita [Joh. 14. 6]. Sic et iste locus, quod sine fide impossibile sit aliquem deo placere [Hebr. 11. 6], synecdochicôs intelligi debet, de his modo, qui verbum audiunt, ac resiliunt, aut qui audiunt, ac recipiunt.

Qui vero per aetatem non audiunt, his universalibus non continentur. Apud illos enim nulla est praevaricatio, cum nulla sit apud eos lex. Si vero ex Christianis prognati sunt, iam virtute testamenti filii dei sunt; sin ex gentibus, iam nihil decernimus.

He has much more to say but that gives you a sense of his reply.

On the Cusp of the Marburg Colloquy: Zwingli Arrives

Samuel Simpson writes

The journey to Basel was made on horseback, the distance from Zurich being about sixty miles, and Zwingli and his friend arrived there safely, September 5. Thence, in company with Œcolampadius and others, he proceeded by boat to Strasburg, where he arrived the next day, September 6. Here he tarried eleven days to confer with his friends and lay plans for the coming conference and also to await the arrival of Ulrich Funk, Zurich’s official delegate. Leaving Strasburg September 18, the company, consisting of Zwingli, Collin, and Funk, of Zurich; Œcolampadius, of Basel; Butzer and Hedio, of Strasburg; and delegates of the last named cities, was conducted overland by a strong escort of Hessian cavalry, through dense forests and dangerous mountain passes, to Marburg, where they arrived September 27. Luther, in company with his Wittenberg friends, Philip Melanchthon, Caspar Cruciger, and Justus Jonas, entered the city the day following.

Here’s a map showing Zwingli’s route from Zurich to Marburg:

route marburg

Oskar Farner: In Memoriam

Oskar Farner was the author of a 4 volume biography of Huldrych Zwingli and one of the editors of the rightly famed Corpus Reformatorum edition of Zwingli’s works.  He was born on 22 September, 1884 and since it’s his birthiversary, I’m remembering him today.

A brief entry on the life of Farner can be found in the Historical Lexicon of Switzerland:

22.9.1884 Unterstammheim, 16.7.1958 Zürich, ref., von Unterstammheim. Sohn des Alfred, Pfarrers. ∞ 1916 Mary Wieser. Stud. der Theologie in Basel, Marburg, Berlin und Zürich. Ab 1908 Pfarrer in Stammheim, ab 1931 Pfarrer in Zollikon, 1937-50 am Grossmünster in Zürich, bis 1955 Kirchenrat und Kirchenratspräsident, u.a. Chefredaktor des “Kirchenboten für den Kt. Zürich”. 1930 Habilitation für Kirchengeschichte an der Theol. Fakultät der Univ. Zürich, 1938-54 Titularprofessor. F. entfaltete neben seinen kirchl. Ämtern eine äusserst fruchtbare wissenschaftl. Tätigkeit, die zum grössten Teil Huldrych Zwingli (“Das Zwinglibild Luthers” 1931, “Huldrych Zwingli” 1943-60, 4 Bände) und der Zürcher Reformation gewidmet war. 1931 Dr. theol. h.c. der Univ. Basel, 1954 Dr. phil. h.c. der Univ. Zürich.

A more complete look at this impressive scholar’s life is available in Zwingliana where von Muralt published a wonderful obituary.  Here are a few excerpts-

Als Oskar Farner am 22. September 1954 seinen 70. Geburtstag feierte und von der Universität Zürich die Würde eines Doktors der Philosophie ehrenhalber empfing, berichteten die Zwingliana über sein Wirken als Zwingli-Forscher. Heute, da dieses reich gesegnete Leben seinen Abschluss gefunden hat, versuchen wir nochmals, das Ganze zu überblicken und das Werk des Gelehrten in den allgemeinen Zusammenhang der neueren Zwingli-Forschung hineinzustellen.

And, very importantly to note,

Das Bedeutungsvollste im Schaffen Farners liegt aber im folgenden: Noch Emil Egli hatte nach den Selbstzeugnissen Zwinglis die Auffassung vertreten, daß der Schweizer unabhängig von Luther Reformator geworden sei.

That’s right- the chief achievement of Farner was his recognition that Zwingli was a Reformer independent of Luther and not beholden to him in any way.  But that wasn’t his only achievement:

Oskar Farner war im Hauptberuf Pfarrer und Diener der Landeskirche als Mitghed und Präsident des Kirchenrates. Als solcher war ihm die Verkündigung des Wortes Gottes das Eine, was not tut. Aus seinem Leben als praktischer Verkündiger und Seelsorger brachte er das so ungemein lebendige Verständnis für den Verkündiger und Kämpfer des 16. Jahrhunderts mit, Zwingli aber war ihm täglicher Helfer und Berater in seinem Wirken in unserer Zeit. Wie es ihn Zwingli gelehrt hatte, war er bereit, sich von Gott im Dienste seines Evangeliums verbrauchen zu

Din haf bin ich
Mach gantz ald brich.

Farner wurde „der” Sprecher Zwinglis unter uns. Seine Vorträge über den Geist und das Leben des Eeformators atmeten eine Kraft der Unmittelbarkeit, der Dringlichkeit und der Ergriffenheit, die allen, die sie erfahren durften, unvergeßlich bleiben wird.

Zwingli Was Wrong about Two Things: Infant Baptism and Mary

Concerning the second, today is the anniversary of the publication of his sermon titled

“The Perpetual Virginity of Mary the Mother of Jesus Christ our Saviour,” which thesis Zwingli maintained, and thus adds his name to the honoured roll of Protestants who believe that Mary not only never had a second child, but remained an uncorrupted maid. He dedicated the sermon to his brothers who lived at Wildhaus, and published it September 17, 1522.  He denies the doctrine of Mary’s intercession, but holds her up for imitation in purity, innocence, and faith. – S.M. Jackson

Given all the stuff he was right about, it’s ok if he’s wrong on a couple.

Zwingli on ‘The Turks’

By which he, and his contemporaries Luther and Calvin, always meant the Muslims.  So, he mentions the Turks in a passage in which he  describes the sorry state of the Catholic Church, writing

… we have become more shameless in our lives than even the Turks and Jews. For you do not find among them such frequent adultery, so many unscrupulous forms of extortion, such beastly drunkenness, such bold robbery, to say nothing of the arrogance of high and low, of the continual wars, vile blasphemy, obscene talk, lying, cheating, and overreaching. Have we not all had our hands full with trying by hearing or hiring or reading masses to drain this universal swamp of evil? This, I believe, no one will deny, that we have all fled for refuge to the mass, as to a sacred anchor [cf. Heb. 6:9]. Nay, we have gone even to such a pitch of madness as to fancy that we saw a bread that brings salvation.

Interestingly, for Zwingli, the Roman Church’s children are worse than any Muslim! There’s something to think about even now for how often is it the case that the people we often think the worst are actually more moral than ourselves?

Erasmus Didn’t Appreciate Zwingli’s “Archeteles”, But He Didn’t Read it Either

“I have read some pages of your apology [Archeteles]. I beseech you for the sake of the glory of the Gospel, which I know you would favour and which we all who bear the name of Christ ought to favour, if you should issue anything hereafter, treat so serious a matter seriously, and bear in mind evangelical modesty and patience. Consult your learned friends before you issue anything. I fear that that apology will cause you great peril and will injure the Gospel. Even in the few pages that I have read there are many things I wanted to warn you about. I do not doubt that your prudence will take this in good part, for I have written late at night with a mind that is most solicitous for you. Farewell.”

Written from Basel, September 8, 1522

Erasmus

I like how Erasmus, like so many of our contemporaries, read a few pages and thought he graspsed the argument of the whole.  For being a learned man, Erasmus wasn’t very smart at times.

Reform of Poor Relief: Today With Zwingli

Zwingli manifested his independent and reforming spirit by criticising the department of outdoor relief in the city, and proposing on September 8, 1520, that the public alms should hereafter be given only to those who had been investigated, and could show actual need. One test of the “worthiness” of the applicants for relief was their ability to repeat the Lord’s Prayer, the Ave Maria, and the Ten Commandments!*

Now that’s a good rule! Forget ‘drug testing’ of welfare recipients- only provide assistance after they’ve been investigated, found truly in need, and demonstrate adequate piety.  Oh for the good old days.

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*Huldreich Zwingli: The Reformer of German Switzerland (1484–1531) (p. 157).

The Journey from Zurich to Marburg

The [first stage of the trip to Marburg for the Colloquy with Luther was the] journey to Basel [which] was made on horseback, the distance from Zurich being about sixty miles, and Zwingli and his friend arrived there safely, September 5. Thence, in company with Œcolampadius and others, he proceeded by boat to Strasburg, where he arrived the next day, September 6.  Here he tarried eleven days to confer with his friends and lay plans for the coming conference and also to await the arrival of Ulrich Funk, Zurich’s official delegate. Leaving Strasburg September 18, the company, consisting of Zwingli, Collin, and Funk, of Zurich; Œcolampadius, of Basel; Butzer and Hedio, of Strasburg; and delegates of the last named cities, was conducted overland by a strong escort of Hessian cavalry, through dense forests and dangerous mountain passes, to Marburg, where they arrived September 27. Luther, in company with his Wittenberg friends, Philip Melanchthon, Caspar Cruciger, and Justus Jonas, entered the city the day following.*

map

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*Samuel Simpson, Life of Ulrich Zwingli: The Swiss Patriot and Reformer (New York: Baker & Taylor Co., 1902), 187–188.

Against the ‘Invocation of the Saints’

zwingliI have seen meanwhile a pamphlet by a certain great theologian§ among the French (if you take him at his own valuation), but I have been prevented from reading it carefully both by my occupations and by pity for the pamphlet and its author. For the unhappy man is so ignorant of what is meant by God, by man, by faith, hope, saint, pilgrim, advocate, mediator, everything, that if I had never before had faith in the saying, “No man can come to me except the Father draw him” [Jn. 6:44], and that other, “Everyone that hath heard from the Father, and hath learned, cometh unto me” [Jn. 6:45], I should, nevertheless, now be forced to recognize them as most true; since I see so great a theologian taking the Holy Scriptures in hand like a donkey running a solemn ceremony, as the saying goes.

I call God to witness that I am sorry for his efforts, which I have not seen. But why should I be sad? The ape is as proud as a peacock of his offspring. Certain good and learned men from France had suggested that I should write a reply to him by name; but when my brother, Oswald Myconius, had carefully examined the book, because I had not time to make a résumé of it, and had put the main points together, we both of us had to laugh, for there was such a complete absence of anything solid in it anywhere that we thought the author and his pamphlet quite unworthy of attention.

This babyish person does not know that “sancti” are not the same thing as “divi,” since those also are called “sancti” who are still on earth; as, “To the saints (sancti) who are at Rome” [Rom. 1:7]. He does not know what the church is, but thinks that by authority of the church it can be decided that “sancti” are to be invoked and to make intercession. Suppose the church should decree some time that they are all at one and the same time to come down to us!

zwingliDo things take place in heaven so exactly in accordance with the pronouncements of the church? The fact that Moses prayed, and Abraham, and others, he twists into, “Therefore the saints (divi) are to be worshipped.” The way he decks out a worship for them, you would think he had been Master of Ceremonies. He speaks of the saints in heaven as he would of a little brother. He makes no distinction between the promises to the fathers, which all pointed to Christ and concerned things to come, and the promises to us, which likewise point to Him, but have been already fulfilled and are immovable.

They had to remind God often of the fathers with whom He had made the covenant; we already enjoy the fruits of the covenant and have no need to pray to God through any save Christ. “For there is none other name under heaven wherein we must be saved but the name of Christ” [Acts 4:12]; and He Himself tells us: “Whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, he will give it you,” etc. [Jn. 16:23]. But when he [Clichtove] tries to demolish the arguments of his opponents, he so sinks in with one foot while pulling out the other that in spite of his sweating and struggling he is forced to give himself up as lost. And when he brings in Jerome arguing thus:† “Stephen prayed here, therefore he prays in heaven also,” and when he does the same with Paul, he is as pleased with himself as if he were riding in a triumphal chariot. Yet meantime he is not equal to upsetting such a frivolous argument as this: If this is logical, “Paul prayed here, therefore he prays there,” this also is logical, “Paul wrote epistles here, therefore he writes them there.” For if he should send down from heaven to us epistles by which the biggest disputes between theologians could be settled, he would do quite as much good as by interceding.

But why ridicule with many words a man who ought rather to be wept over? The man who truly possesses and truly teaches faith will not need many words to refute such a notion; for by faith is learned disregard of the saints in this respect, and by faith is learned the true “worship of the saints.” We “worship” them rightly when we all cling firmly to that God to whom they also in their lifetime clung and taught others to cling. For how could it be that while they were still under the weakness of the flesh they should arrogate nothing to themselves, and now when they are utterly removed from all such weakness should have changed their minds, and having previously led men to the one and only God should now bid them come for refuge to themselves?

zwingliI want my friends, therefore, not to take it ill that I have not gratified them by reducing that pamphlet to pulp, for it was quite superfluous. Faith, as I have said, will of itself thoroughly eradicate the error; though every position that he supports in his whole pamphlet will be found so completely overthrown by these few considerations urged in reply to Emser, if only one will read and weigh them faithfully, that no one will want anything further. God is such that He is sufficient unto all. He is so kind a Father that He refuses nothing, so bountiful that He loves to bestow Himself. Whom, then, are we procuring as our advocates? Faith does not know this spurious foresight. Hence it is perfectly plain that those who still cling to the creature do not lean on the one true and holy God.

What, then, does their faith amount to? Would it not have been better to keep silent than to make such a shameless zwingli_laptopdisplay of want of faith? I know the Jeromes and the Augustines and the rest, but I know also Christ and the Apostles, and none of them ever taught any such thing. And what is gained by violently twisting Scripture to such purpose, or by refusing to understand the underlying allegorical sense when such sense is present?

Faith leans upon one God, clings to One, trusts in One, hopes on One, flies to One for refuge, knows for certain that it will find with One everything that it needs. May He who draweth hearts to Himself grant that we may cleave to Him alone, and may that hypocrisy which parades as piety be banished from the souls of all! Amen.

So the great and learned Huldrych Zwingli.  So, Mother Teresa, perhaps sick people praying to you isn’t such a good idea after all…

Today With Zwingli: A Letter from Oecolampadius

Pax Christi tecum, mi frater.

Non est, quod nos perturbet obsistentium nobis ferocia. Annon pacem, ut pręcepit dominus [Luc. 10. 5. 6], pręfati sumus? Nonne de gloria domini agitur? Quos parentes? quos amicos? quos doctores? quam creaturam agnoscemus? Nequaquam essemus veri nepotes Phinees.

Si vindicari cum mansuetudine poterit gloria patris, non patiemur, ut immites iure arguamur. Sin zelum docebit unctio, relinquemus spiritui suum impetum. Expectabimus tamen, quidnam scripturus sit Martinus, orabimusque, ne genio suo indulgeat.

Mitto hic, quę calumniis Fabri Capito noster feliciter respondit. Nescio, an Germanica legeris, quę multo feliciora sunt. Xylotectus hinc migravit post festum assumptionis die quarto, Christiane quidem, sed magno cum cruciatu.

Sępe illum invisi ęgrotantem, sed confuso sermone balbutientem ęgre intelligebam; imo plane  intelligebam, Christum in pectore ipsius inter dolores summos regnare.

Accepi tuos libellos, pro quibus gratiam habeo. In Petri Gynorii, quem Albanensem hic dicebamus, fasciculo nihil inveni pręter libellum Eccii, qui, qualis sit, statim et ego cognoscam. At nihil ille  dabit, quod non ipsissimum referat Eccium.

Vale.

3. Septembris.
Tuus Ęcolampadius.
Hic tibi commendari cupit, qui literas reddit.
Hulrico Zwinglio, euangelii fidelissimo ministro apud Tigurinos,  suo dulcissimo in Christo fratri.

oecolampadius_zwingli

A Look At One of Zwingli’s Letters

Here’s a photo of one of Zwingli’s letters, written 3 Sept., 1528.

Here’s the transcription-

Gratiam et pacem a deo.  Misissem nunc, tabellionem nactus, responsiones nostras ad Luterum, nisi nihil dubius essem ad vos dudum perlatas esse. Aliud est, quod nunc volo. Agunt privati homines Milhusani, quamvis non privata autoritate, sed eorum iussu, quorum maxime refert, ut in civitatem Tigurobernam recipiantur; id autem obscure adhuc, hoc est: caute et clam. Nos, a secretis, et ego, rem nondum retulimus, hanc potissimum ob causam, quod et vestram petitionem expectamus et nullo negocio confectam [!] iri speramus. Atque interim illis bona pollicemur, quodque ad proxima trium urbium comitia, si eis videatur, velimus referre, et quicquid e re sua putaverint fore, summa fide facturos. Hęc nolui, ut vos laterent. Rescierunt enim Milhusani, vos in hoc esse, ut in civitatem coeatis, sed non ex perfidis, verum ex fidelibus, qui sciunt, foedera urbium vestrarum, Sanctogalli et Milhusii dico, ferme esse simillima. Vos igitur, quicquid consultissimum credetis, sequamini.

Vale.

Tiguri 3. die Septembris 1528. Claronensis populus in fide verbi perstat. Huldricus Zuinglius tuus. Dem ersamen, wysen etc. herren von Watt, burgermeister zuo Santgallen.

And here’s the translation, courtesy S. Jackson

GRACE AND PEACE FROM GOD. I should have already sent you our replies to Luther, since I have gotten hold of a letter carrier, if I had not been suspicious that they had been long ago delivered to you. My present business is somewhat different. Private citizens of Muthausen urge, not of their individual authority, but rather by command of those particularly concerned, that they should he received into the alliance between Zurich and Bern. But this has been done in the dark, that is, cautiously and secretly. We, the Town clerk and I, have not yet brought up the matter, chiefly for the reason that we are awaiting your petition; and we hope that it will go thro without difficulty. Meanwhile we are making good offers to them to the effect, that if it seems good to them we are willing to refer it to the next Did of the three cities and with the greatest fidelity to do anything which they believe will be to their advantage. I was unwilling that you should remain ignorant of these matters. For the Multhausers have learned that you have under consideration joining this alliance yourself, and they have heared it not from traitors but from faithful ones who know that the alliance of your cities, I mean St. Gall and Mulhausen, are almost identical. We will follow out what you consider for your best interests. Farewell.

ZURICH, September 3, 1528.

The Glareans remain faithful to the Word.
Yours,
H. ZWINGLI.

I think it would be a lot of fun, and very instructive, to have Zwingli’s handwriting subjected to ‘handwriting analysis’.

What I’m Working On Now

At the Calvin Congress in Zurich a few years back I had a nice chat with Peter Opitz about books and stuff.  He remarked that more people should be translating Reformation texts so that the works and words of the Reformers could be made available to a wider audience.  So I think he’s right.  That’s why previously I translated one of Zwingli’s tractates for the Pitts Theology Library.  And now I’m working on another text: Zwingli’s Freundliche Verglimpfung über die Predigt Luthers wider die Schwärmer, 28.-30. März 1527.

I’ll keep you posted.  I’m in the midst of transcribing the edition in the Kessler Collection at Emory.  Then the translation proper.  And finally I’ll write the introduction.  I’m expecting to be done by Christmas.

Zwingli Was a Self-Paced Reformer, A Man Who Didn’t Rush into Anything

As we learn, for instance, in the way he reformed the Mass-

In his treatise on “The Canon of the Mass,”—dated IV. Cal. Septemb. (i. e., September 2) 1523—the canon is that part of the mass liturgy in which the words of the institution appear, and is therefore doctrinally the storm centre of discussion respecting it—he enunciates the doctrine now so commonly associated with his name that the Eucharist is not a mystery but a ministry, the atmosphere is not awe but love, the result is not infusion of grace but of enthusiasm; we remember Christ, and the thought of His presence stirs us to fresh exertion in His service. He proposed a substitute for the Latin prayers which still more strikingly would set forth these teachings.

Yet, characteristically he made no innovation himself at once. His books, however, laid down principles which logically followed out would oblige a complete break with the Old Church. Yet, so slow was he to make changes that on October 9, 1523, he actually defended himself against the charge that he retained the Old Church ceremonies—the use of the cross, vestments, choir-singing, etc.,—because he liked them!*

__________________
*Samuel Macauley Jackson, Huldreich Zwingli: The Reformer of German Switzerland (1484–1531); (New York; London: G. P. Putnam’s Sons; Knickerbocker Press, 1901), 201.

Today With Zwingli: How Eck Faked Knowledge of the Biblical Languages He Didn’t Possess

On August 31, 1526, Zwingli wrote a very gossipy letter full of information, telling how Eck used at Baden the Complutensian Polyglot, which had the Latin version side by side with the Hebrew and the Greek, and so by apparently reading unaided from the Hebrew and Greek got a reputation for learning he did not deserve; and how poor Balthasar Hubmaier, in his examination before the Council, quoted Zwingli’s remarks about catechumens, as showing his former preference to have baptism follow instruction; how he recanted and then withdrew his recantation; and how generously Zwingli treated him, and how basely Hubmaier reviled him when escaped from the city. He closes with some slighting remarks upon Luther: “I think you are too solicitous in the matter of that man who is said to be writing against me in German and Latin on the Eucharist. In nothing do I promise myself a more certain victory.”*

There are a lot of people who pretend knowledge of the Biblical languages that they don’t possess.  And they all use interlinears.

__________________
*Samuel Macauley Jackson, Huldreich Zwingli: The Reformer of German Switzerland (1484–1531), Heroes of the Reformation (New York; London: G. P. Putnam’s Sons; Knickerbocker Press, 1901), 276.

Zwingli’s View of the Apocrypha

An interesting proof of the extent of Zwingli’s reputation is a letter written to him from Ghent by John Cousard, who signs himself in Greek, “Bishop of the Brethren of the Common Life,” lamenting that Zwingli wrote so much in German, and asking him to have his writings in that language translated into Latin! Zwingli replied to it on August 31, 1531, and makes these remarks upon the Apocrypha:

“There are certain considerations which you adduce from the Apocryphal Books. These, I concede, contain some things that are worth reading; yet they never attain to that measure of authority that the Canonical Books have. They are more diluted and feebler, so that they appear rather as imitations of the former Scriptures than written in the peculiar fervour of the fresh spirit.”*

______________
*Samuel Macauley Jackson, Huldreich Zwingli: The Reformer of German Switzerland (1484–1531) (Heroes of the Reformation; New York; London: G. P. Putnam’s Sons; Knickerbocker Press, 1901), 339–340.

Today With Zwingli

H. Zwingli wrote a brief letter to Philipp of Hesse on the 30th of August, 1530, informing him that the requested publication of the sermon on Providence Zwingli had preached at Marburg and which Philipp appreciated so much was printed in Latin and would be on the way shortly.

The sermon was, naturally, greatly expanded.  It remains one of Zwingli’s most interesting and widely read books.

Zwingli on Hypocrisy

Zwingli astutely notes, concerning hypocrisy-

… those who are a prey to obstinate hypocrisy can never be persuaded by the most skillful argument to confess what they really feel and have in their hearts. Yet the more persistently they refuse, the more certainly are they understood by the spiritual physician. For “he that is spiritual judgeth all things” [1 Cor. 2:15].

Now – as a friend of mine says – ‘that’s some deep thoughts there dear heart’.