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Category Archives: Zwingli

Today With Zwingli: The Explanation of the 67 Articles

On 14 July 1523 Zwingli published his very long ‘Explanation’ of the 67 Articles he had put together to explain his Reformatory program. It’s good stuff. You can read the Articles here. If you read German, you can read the explanations published on this date here. If you’re confined to English, you’ll have to get this book.

Here’s my favorite (because in it Zwingli eviscerates the ‘entertainment’ too often found in worship)- (skip to the end for an explanation if you wish) –

Der sechs und viertzigst artickel.

So muoss ie volgen, das tempelgsang oder gschrey,

one andacht und nun umb lon, eintweders ruom suocht vor den menschen oder gwün. Der sinn ist, das die gsang, die man in den templen thuot umb lon und one andacht, allein darumb geschehind, das man oder gruempt werde, wie man geystlich sye oder das man gelt gwünne, welche fürnemmen doch alle böß sind. Darumb noch vil böser ist, das man sölichen gouggel den menschen zuo eim geltkloben für die nasen ußsteckt und inn so tür verkoufft.  Hie sprechend sy zum ersten: So es aber mit andacht geschicht, so ist es ie nit böß. Antwurt: Hast nit ghört, das du kein werck schetzen solt, wie guot es sye; denn so man uns das gestattete, so wurden wir unser werck so tür schetzen, daß uns got die kümmerlich möchte bezalen. Das ein werck guot sye, lyt allein an got; von dem muoß es kummen. Darnach pruelt der andacht nit vor den menschen, wie die unsinnigen buoler thuond, sunder er gadt an sin stille. Da kan er sich aller bast mit got ersprachen; denn inn zücht nitt gsicht, nit ghörd von der guoten betrachtung ab.

Es ist wider aller menschen vernunfft, das man in grossem gethös unnd gthön sinnig oder andächtig sye. Darzuo ist des menschen andacht so kurtz und schnell, das er gar nit lang mit worten und hertzen andächtig ist; aber mit dem inneren sinn und gedancken imm hertzen mag er den andacht lenger verstrecken. Darus man ermißt, das die, die so übel an dem korgsang rüwt, eintweders närrisch sind oder kindisch. Närrisch: das sy noch den rechten, waren andacht nie erlernet hand; denn hettind sy den ie recht empfunden, so möchtind sy nit erlyden, das man sy mit dem mönen irrte. Kindisch: das sy den kinden glych gern singend und hörend singen, ob sy glych nit verstond, was sy singend. Ja, ich sag by der warheit, das ich das umblonsingen mee sündig warlich schetzen mag dann guot. Denn was thuond die kinder minder, die umb die gaß krützend und ouch darzuo singend, und buckent ire münd ouch in seltzame wort, die weder sy noch andere menschen verstond. Also singt der meerteil joch der münch und pfaffen, das sy wenig verstond, was sy singend.

Doch muoß man inen lonen oder aber sy singend nit. Darzuo ist da oben gnuog bewärt, das wir nit durch unsere werck sunder durch gottes erbärmbd sälig werdind, mit dero ouch die todtenpfyffer sälig werden muessend, und nit mit iren wercken. Demnach werffend sy engegen: Ist es aber nit wäger, man sye also in der kilchen, denn das man muessig gang oder imm bretspil lige? Antwurt: Gnad, herr, das ir dahin kummen sind, das ir üwren so schönen gotsdienst nit besser sin könnend bewären, denn das er dennocht besser sye denn muessiggon und bretspilen. Wellend ir üwren andacht dahin rechnen, so wil ich reden: spinnen sye besser dann muessiggon und brätspilen. Wie wär nun, ir spunnind oder haspletind, min andächtiger vatter? Doch sind ir ze starck darzuo, wie wär es, man machte ein holtzschyter oder ein pfluogheber uß üch, so ir doch etwas muessend thuon für muessiggon? So hulffind ir ouch dem gemeinen menschen die arbeit tragen; ir sind schön und fäßt.

Ach got, wie muoß man üch die wyl so kostlich vertryben! Thuond so wol und lesend das 14. capitel 1. Cor. [1. Cor. 14. 19], so werdend ir finden, das Paulus lieber wil fünff wort mit verstand des sinnes reden andren zuo der ler, weder zehentusend wort mit der zungen. Also werdend ir, wie da oben ist anzeigt, nach dem sinn der gschrifft arbeiten und die unverstandnen wort lassen ligen, als ich hoff. Und so ir überein frölich sin wellend in dem geist, so würt das nit lang wären. Darumb thuond es, so lang das gemuet mit den worten hält; hab ich dhein zwyfel, ir werdind nimmerme singen; denn er spricht daselbst [1. Cor. 14. 15]: Wil ich mit dem atem einen psalmen reden, so sol es mit dem gmuet geschehen, das ist: wiltu mit dem mund einen psalmen reden, luog, das munnd und gmuet mit einandren ziehind. Nun ist mund und gmuet, so man bättet, nit lang uff eim weg, vil weniger gemuet und gsang. Lis das gantz capitel daselbst, so findstu, das under den Cristen das höchst ampt ist, daß sy das wort gottes zuo guotem verstand bringind, damit die gantz menge gelert werd. Item es hatt ouch Amos 5. [Amos 5. 23] das singen imm alten testament verworffen: Thuo mir das gmürmel diner gsangen hinweg, und das gsang diner lyren wil ich nit.

Wie wurd der pürisch prophet zuo unseren zyten thuon, wenn er so mengerley musick in den templen sähe, und so mengerley mensuren der basdentzen, turdionen und hopperdentzen und ander proportzen horte, und dazwüschen dis zarten korheren in iren sydinen hembdlinen zum altar gen opffer gon? Warlich, er wurd aber schryen, daß sin wort die gantz welt nit erlyden möcht. Sich, das tockenwerck in den templen kost so vil schweiß und arbeit; noch wil es nieman ze hertzen gon, noch muoß man die glychßnery (ich hatt nach geredt: die abgötery) für und für neren. Unnd beschicht doch nit on merckliche sünd; denn da wirdt eintweders angesehen uppige eer oder wollust oder nutz, und kanst du nienen nüt uß der gschrifft harfürbringen, das den verlonten gotsdienst bevest. Denn das wort: Der arbeiter ist wirdig sines lons Luc. 10. [Luc. 10. 7], dient gar nit dahar.

Darumb sol im nieman grusen lassen, ob er das russen uß den templen laßt kummen, und ordnet an des statt wolglerte, die das gotswort trülich uffschliessind, und gibt das übrig guot den armen, dürfftigen, doch mit sölicher mas, das da nit uffruor enspring, es wellind dann die gotsjunckheren nit anderst. Alde, min tempelgmürmel! Bis mir nun nit schad; guot weiß ich wol, das du mit nit bist.

Aber biß grueßt, o frommes, innwendigs gebett, das vom gotswort erweckt würdt imm hertzen des gleubigen menschen, ja, ein kleiner sünftz, der kurtz bschicht und sich selbs erkent, und bald wyter loset! Bis  ouch grueßt, du gmeines gebett, das alle Christenmenschen für einandren tuond, es sye offenlich imm tempel oder imm kämerlin, doch fry, unverlont! Ich weiß, das du das gebett bist, dem gott geben wil, das er verheissen hat.

To summarize- worship is more about hearing and heeding the Word than it is in hearing shrieking self-promoting buffoons compete with the organ for attention.

 
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Posted by on 14 Jul 2018 in Zwingli

 

Coming Soon From TVZ: Ulrich Zwinglis Spiritualität- Ein Beispiel reformierter Frömmigkeit

Glory.

Die reformierte Tradition ist spiritueller als ihr Ruf. Das zeigt sich auch im Blick auf den persönlichen Glauben und die Frömmigkeit Ulrich Zwinglis. Sein theologisches Denken und kirchliches Wirken, sein politisches Handeln und Selbstverständnis sind getragen von spiritueller Erfahrung im Umgang mit der Heiligen Schrift wie auch von hingebungsvollem Vertrauen in Gottes Walten.

Samuel Lutz geht Zwinglis Spiritualität nach, indem er den Reformator selbst zu zentralen Punkten seiner Theologie und seines Glaubens zu Wort kommen lässt. Wie können wir Gott erfahren? Wer sind wir als Kirche? Was soll der Staat? Ist Freude möglich in diesem elenden Leben? Der erste Teil des kleinen Buchs ist Zwinglis persönlicher Spiritualität gewidmet, der zweiten Teil deren Ausstrahlung ins kirchliche, politische und alltägliche Leben: Für Zwingli gehören geistliches und gesellschaftliches Leben untrennbar zusammen. Unter dem Gesichtspunkt der Spiritualität erscheinen der grosse Reformator und das reformierte Erbe in einem neuen Licht.

 
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Posted by on 12 Jul 2018 in Books, Zwingli

 
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If You Can Go, Go!

 
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Posted by on 11 Jul 2018 in Zwingli

 

An Interim Reminder, Again, That Though Calvin Was Great, Zwingli Was Greater

Zwingli wrote, in defense of Luther, in 1520 shortly after Luther had been excommunicated-

zwingliAs to Luther, the largest part of this evil [i.e., the Roman uproar about his teaching] must be laid at the door of those who have preached and written about indulgences and the power of the Roman Pontiff things which no educated and religious ear could bear, so that as far as the beginning of this disturbance is concerned Luther may fairly seem to have been influenced by devotion and zeal in the cause of the Christian Religion.

Moreover, those who do not excuse his beginning afterwards to write more bitterly, yet make allowance for it, saying that he was not altogether without reason angered by the exceedingly bitter hectoring and taunts of certain persons. Without having yet read his books, they raised among the people the cry of “Heretic, Antichrist, Schismatic,” before the Pope had made any public interposition of his authority in the matter at all. Nobody admonished or confuted him, though he declared himself, as he even now declares himself, ready for discussion with any one—they only damned him.

 
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Posted by on 10 Jul 2018 in Zwingli

 

Naming The Names of those Who Teach Falsely

zwingliIn his Commentary on True and False Religion Zwingli, who normally didn’t mention those against whom he wrote, made an exception- remarking

Emser and Eck … are pests to the teachings of Christ. Their own wanton recklessness has forced me to write pretty sharply against them and by name. For the former without any warning so arrogantly attacked me unawares that I should have been a renegade to Christ’s teachings (for it is His work, not mine, in which I am engaged), if I had retired before a man singing his song of victory before he had come into my sight. For he wrote against me in such a way (and published the book) that he tricked me into waiting for six months to see if he were going to send me a copy.

The other laid a snare for my destruction, and sending most absurd and lying slanders to the assembly of the Swiss tried to get the start of me, so that, if his scheme succeeded, I might seem to have been rightly slain, and that he might sell himself for a high price to the Romans and the tyrants of Germany. When I disclosed his crime (and it could not be denied), good gods, how he raved!

Paul too had reason to name names from time to time.  Sometimes naming names is the only way to protect the sheep from the wolves (because sometimes the sheep aren’t very observant and if they aren’t spoken to directly don’t take hints too well).

The general rule is- if the Flock is in danger, yell out the name of the wolf who is attacking.

 
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Posted by on 8 Jul 2018 in Zwingli

 

Zwingli’s ‘Petition for Priests to Marry’ and a Little Help from a Friend

xylotectusOn 7 July 1522, while Zwingli was preparing his little booklet on the freedom of priests to marry, his friend in Lucerne, one Johannes Xylotectus, sent him a note with a tiny story to help Zwimgli make his point. Xylotectus writes

Ioannes Xylotectus Huldricho Zuinlio S. D. P.

Sacrificus quidam nostras scorti sui maritum confecit. Scortum sacrificus aliquandiu invito marito aluit. Maritus eum de restituenda preda Lucernae convenit. Hinc cum scorto redeuntem in itinere deprehendit, adgreditur loethiferoque vulnere cadit et tandem moritur. Hoc ideo te scire volui, ut, si commode inserere libello, quem parturis, posses, exemplum haberes recens, quanta noster coelibatus non modo scandala, verumetiam pericula pariat, quibus legittimo coniugio foelicissime mederi possent nostri Helvetii. Noster item Bodenler dominica pręterita multa in sacerdotum coniugia pro contione dixit, cui velim vel per Erasmum nostrum responderetur (ut scilicet vel taceret vel scripturam scriptura refelleret, ne tandem suis coloribus depictus toti orbi fabula redderetur), nugas suas diutius non ferendas, et cetera in hunc modum, ut visum fuerit, litterasque illas cum libello negotii nostri accipiat. Iacobus Naef te ad templi sui consecrationis festum venturum dixit. Fac sciam, an ita sit et quando.

Vale.

Ex Lucerna Nonis Iuliis 1522.
Et doctissimo et amicissimo domino Huldricho Zuinlio,
Tigurinorum euangelistae. –
Meister Uolrich Zwingli zuo Zurich lutpriester.

Zwingli’s friends across the Cantons were happy to help him Reform the Church.  And reforming the Church meant reforming the clergy.

Of Xylotectus (who isn’t exactly widely known), the Swiss Historical Lexicon notes

Geboren 1490 (Johannes Ludwig Zimmermann) Luzern, gestorben 19.8.1526 Basel, von Luzern, aus patriz. Geschlecht stammend. um 1524 Margarethe Feer, Tochter des Jost, Bauern. Stud. in Basel, 1508 Bakkalaureus, 1510 Magister Artium. 1499 Chorherrwartner des Stifts Beromünster, 1504 Chorherr zu St. Leodegar im Hof in Luzern, 1513 Priesterweihe.

Ab 1510 wirkte X. als Lateinlehrer in Luzern und knüpfte enge Bande zum Humanistenkreis um Joachim Vadian, Huldrych Zwingli, Glarean und Oswald Myconius. Als seine Stellung in Luzern aufgrund seiner reformator. Gesinnung unhaltbar wurde, siedelte X. Ende 1524 nach Basel um. Dort erlag er der Pest. 1520 wurde X. von Hans Hohlbein (dem Jüngeren) porträtiert.

 
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Posted by on 7 Jul 2018 in Church History, Zwingli

 

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Zwingli’s Understanding of Predestination

 
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Posted by on 5 Jul 2018 in Theology, Zwingli

 

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Quote of the Day

«Genauso ziehen auch die Monopolisten nach und nach alles an sich, und wird ihnen das Wasser nicht abgegraben, so werdet auch ihr mit euren Untertanen ihr Eigentum.» — Zwingli, Wer Ursache zum Aufruhr gibt, 1524

 
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Posted by on 5 Jul 2018 in Zwingli

 

Zwingli’s Petition to the Bishop that Priests Be Allowed to Marry

 
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Posted by on 2 Jul 2018 in Zwingli

 

Wussten Sie, dass die Reformierten lange Zeit für Theater sorgten?

A little collection of essays by our own Peter Opitz has been published by the great folk at TVZ.

Die gesammelten Kolumnen aus dem bref Magazin

  • Überraschendes aus der Reformation
  • Fundiert und humorvoll
  • Die beliebten Kolumnen aus dem bref Magazin

For those unfamiliar with Bref Magazin, it is a periodical focusing on issues of interest to the Reformed community in Switzerland and the wider world.  It commenced in 2016 and has been regularly published since then.

From time to time the very gifted Reformation scholar Peter Opitz has contributed brief pieces to the magazine.  Those are here collected and made available in one convenient place for interested readers.

Each essay is about a page and a half or two pages at the maximum and they cover a variety  of topics from the confusion of Luther with Zwingli in the popular mind to the part women played in the Reformation to laughter as a sign of God’s Spirit to whether or not the Reformed are also ‘Protestant’ to the illustrations of the Froschauer Bibel to Zwingli’s appreciation of music to Zwingli’s Hebrew teacher and many others.

It is wide ranging and informative and delightful and a bright example of scholarship for the masses.

This little 49 page volume with it’s twenty-one ‘Did You Know?’s is the perfect little introduction to Church History questions that are insightful, humorous, witty, and instructive.  If you read it, you will enjoy it.  I promise.

 
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Posted by on 28 Jun 2018 in Book Review, Books, Church History, TVZ, Zwingli

 
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Because Zwingli Is Better Than All the Fathers

 
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Posted by on 28 Jun 2018 in Zwingli

 

The Pope Writes Zwingli: And Zwingli Responds to the Bearer of the Letter

Pope Adrian wrote Zwingli on 23 January, 1523-

“Adrian, Pope, the sixth [of the name], to his dear son salutations and the Apostolical benediction: We send the venerable brother Ennius, Bishop of Verulam, our domestic prelate and Nuncio of the Apostolic See, a man distinguished for prudence and fidelity, to that unconquerable nation most completely linked unto us and to the Holy See, in order that he may treat with it respecting things of the highest importance to us and the Holy See, and to the entire Christian commonwealth. Although he is enjoined to conduct our affairs with your nation openly and in public, yet because we have a certain knowledge of your distinguished merits and especially love and prize your loyalty, and also place particular confidence in your honesty, we have commissioned this Bishop, our Nuncio, to hand over to you in private our letter, and declare our best intentions toward you. We exhort your devotion in the Lord, and that you have all confidence in Him, and with the same disposition, in which we are inclined to remember your honour and profit, to bestir yourself also in our affairs and in those of the Apostolic See. For which you will earn no small thanks from us.

“Given at Rome at St. Peter’s, under the ring of the Fisherman, January 23, 1523, of our pontificate the first year.”

Zwingli wasn’t about to agree to abandon Reform just to get a plumb reward from the Pope. So he read it, and, according to a letter he wrote his mentor and friend Thomas Wyttenbach, ‘The Pope is the Antichrist’ (letter of 23 June, 1523- SS VII,300)-

zwingli_7-300

 
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Posted by on 23 Jun 2018 in Church History, Zwingli

 

More ‘Immer diese Zwinglis’

 
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Posted by on 22 Jun 2018 in Church History, Zwingli

 

The ‘Prophezei’: The Most Significant Contribution to the History of Theological Education to Come from The Reformation

The first Reformed ‘University’ in the world was founded on the 19h of June, 1525 in Zurich under the name of the ‘Prophezei’.  Of it Schaff writes

A theological college, called Carolinum, was established from the funds of the Great Minster, and opened June 19, 1525. It consisted of the collegium humanitatis, for the study of the ancient languages, philosophy and mathematics, and the Carolinum proper, for the study of the Holy Scriptures, which were explained in daily lectures, and popularized by the pastors for the benefit of the congregation. This was called prophesying (1 Cor. 14:1). Zwingli wrote a tract on Christian education (1526). He organized this school of the prophets, and explained in it several books of the Old Testament, according to the Septuagint. He recommended eminent scholars to professorships. Among the earliest teachers were Ceporin, Pellican, Myconius, Collin, Megander, and Bibliander. To Zwingli Zurich owes its theological and literary reputation. The Carolinum secured an educated ministry, and occupied an influential position in the development of theological science and literature till the nineteenth century, when it was superseded by the organization of a full university.

There is little doubt that the establishment of the Prophezei was the most important and lasting contribution Zwingli made to the history of Christian theology.

Each day of classes began with the following prayer:

Omnipotens sempiterne et misericors Deus, cuius verbum est lucerna pedibus nostris et lumen semitarum nostrarum, aperi et illumina mentes nostras ut oracula tua pure et sancte intelligamus et in illud quod recte intellexerimus transformemur, quo maiestati tuae nulla ex parte displiceamus: per Jesum Christum dominum nostrum. Amen.

Perhaps theological education in our own day could benefit by the sincere utterance of that prayer. Certainly, our own theological work could.

 
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Posted by on 19 Jun 2018 in Church History, Zwingli

 

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The Birthday of the Prophezei

Under Zwingli’s leadership…

A theological college, called Carolinum, was established from the funds of the Great Minster, and opened June 19, 1525. It consisted of the collegium humanitatis, for the study of the ancient languages, philosophy and mathematics, and the Carolinum proper, for the study of the Holy Scriptures, which were explained in daily lectures, and popularized by the pastors for the benefit of the congregation. This was called prophesying (1 Cor. 14:1).  Zwingli wrote a tract on Christian education (1526).   He organized this school of the prophets, and explained in it several books of the Old Testament, according to the Septuagint. He recommended eminent scholars to professorships. Among the earliest teachers were Ceporin, Pellican, Myconius, Collin, Megander, and Bibliander. To Zwingli Zurich owes its theological and literary reputation. The Carolinum secured an educated ministry, and occupied an influential position in the development of theological science and literature till the nineteenth century, when it was superseded by the organization of a full university. — Philip Schaff

 
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Posted by on 19 Jun 2018 in Church History, Zwingli

 
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The Prophezei

 
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Posted by on 19 Jun 2018 in Church History, Zwingli

 

‘Kill The Dragon!’

That’s one of a number of things that the crowd that assembled outside Zwingli’s house on the 15th of June, 1525 said of him.  They bombarded his house with eggs and stones and the government had to step in to squelch the escalating violence.

Who were these ‘peace loving’ Christians?  The adherents of the Anabaptist sect of course.  As they marched to his house from the Zurich suburb of Zollikon they shouted ‘Woe, woe, woe to Zurich, and as Jonah said, in 40 days the city will be destroyed’.  ‘The dragon must be slain’ (the tale of which is nicely related by Oskar Farner in his stunningly thorough biography of Zwingli).

Of these radicals Schaff notes

The Radical movement began in Zurich in 1523, and lasted till 1532. The leaders were Conrad Grebel, from one of the first families of Zurich, a layman, educated in the universities of Vienna and Paris, whom Zwingli calls the corypheus of the Anabaptists; Felix Manz, the illegitimate son of a canon of the Great Minster, a good Hebrew scholar; Georg Blaurock, a monk of Coire, called on account of his eloquence “the mighty Jörg,” or “the second Paul;” and Ludwig Hätzer of Thurgau, chaplain at Wädenschwyl, who, with Hans Denck, prepared the first Protestant translation of the Hebrew Prophets, and acted as secretary of the second Zurich disputation, and edited its proceedings. With them were associated a number of ex-priests and ex-monks, as William Reubli, minister at Wyticon, Johann Brödli (Paniculus) at Zollicon, and Simon Stumpf at Höng. They took an active part in the early stages of the Reformation, prematurely broke the fasts, and stood in the front rank of the image-stormers. They went ahead of public opinion and the orderly method of Zwingli. They opposed the tithe, usury, military service, and the oath. They denied the right of the civil magistracy to interfere in matters of religion. They met as “brethren” for prayer and Scripture-reading in the house of “Mother Manz,” and in the neighborhood of Zurich, especially at Zollicon.

He then observes, very correctly,

Zwingli could not follow the Anabaptists without bringing the Reformation into discredit with the lovers of order, and rousing the opposition of the government and the great mass of the people. He opposed them, as Augustin opposed the schismatical Donatists. He urged moderation and patience. The Apostles, he said, separated only from the open enemies of the gospel, and from the works of darkness, but bore with the weak brethren. Separation would not cure the evils of the Church. There are many honest people who, though weak and sick, belong to the sheepfold of Christ, and would be offended at a separation. He appealed to the word of Christ, “He that is not against me, is for me,” and to the parable of the tares and the wheat. If all the tares were to be rooted up now, there would be nothing left for the angels to do on the day of final separation.

It is my own view that had the Anabaptists been reasonable, rational, theologically educated, and more concerned with real reform than a mere break with Rome, they could have contributed positively to the developments of the 16th century Reformation. Instead, their paths led to the disaster of Münster and the lunacy of the Peasants War.

 
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Posted by on 18 Jun 2018 in Church History, Zwingli

 

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Fun Facts From Church History: The Role of the Septuagint in the Zurich ‘Prophezei’

S.M. Jackson writes

zw941.jpgZwingli showed his ambition for an educated clergy by establishing a theological seminary as soon as funds were available, which was in the summer of 1525. A call was given to a teacher of Greek and Hebrew, and Zwingli himself took part in the work. The text-book was the Bible. Instruction began at eight o’clock in the morning.

One teacher read the Hebrew text and translated it into Latin with a brief interpretation. Then Zwingli translated the same text from the Greek of the Septuagint into Latin. Leo Jud then commented in German upon what had been read, and explained in Latin.

This theological seminary was attended not only by regular students but by the clergy of the city, and Leo Jud’s lectures by the people generally. Instruction from the Greek New Testament was given in the afternoon at three o’clock by Myconius. That Zwingli set up for himself a high standard is shown by his writings, and he was able to impress this standard upon others. He called his institute “The Prophecy.”

This institution was the first ‘Reformed University’ in the world and the fore-runner to the rightly esteemed University of Zurich even now in operation. And the Septuagint played a central role in the education of the Reformed Clergy of Zurich (and beyond).

 
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Posted by on 18 Jun 2018 in Church History, Septuagint, Zwingli

 

Zwingli’s Daily Schedule

oecolampadius_zwingliZwingli’s biographer writes of his daily schedule thusly:

His mode of life is thus described, and the description is true of his remaining years: he rose early, and studied, standing up, till 10 o’clock; after dinner, which commonly at that time in Zurich came on at 11 A.M., until 2 P.M., he was free to all who came; from 2 P.M. till supper-time he studied; after supper he walked out a little; then returned to study or to write letters, which latter occupation sometimes kept him up till midnight.

He read much in the classics: Aristotle, Plato, Thucydides, Demosthenes, and Hesiod, Lucian, Theocritus, and Aristophanes, Homer, and especially Pindar, are to be mentioned as the Greek authors he was most familiar with; while his Latin favourites were Horace, Sallust, and Seneca. He had begun the study of Hebrew at Einsiedeln, but soon dropped it. Now he took it up again under Andreas Boeschenstein. As at Glarus, he had pupils in his house. He also gave instruction in Greek in the cathedral school.

Now, tell me how busy you are.

 
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Posted by on 17 Jun 2018 in Modern Culture, Zwingli

 

Zwingli’s Mentor- Thomas Wyttenbach

wyttenbachWyttenbach was born at Biel, or Bienne, sixty miles west by south of Zurich, in 1472, and died there in 1526. In 1496 he was matriculated at Tuebingen, made M.A. there in 1500. In Basel he lectured from 1505 to 1507, when he became people’s priest in Biel and was to the rest of his days identified with that place.

He showed his independence and his defiance of ecclesiastical authority by marrying in 1524, and from that time on his troubles were incessant. He was deprived of his position, and just when he had increased need of money he found himself without any, and till the end of his days was miserably poor. But though in dire need he pleaded the case of spiritual freedom and kept up a gallant fight. His exertions won over many to the Reformation, and while he lay dying his heart was gladdened by the thought that his beloved native city was about to be numbered with the other Reformed cities of Switzerland.

He and Zwingli were frequent correspondents, yet only one letter has been preserved, viz., a long one by Zwingli on the Eucharist, dated June 15, 1523 (vii., 297–300). It is addressed “to his dear preceptor and brother in Christ at Biel.” Zwingli sends him a greeting as “his dear preceptor” in a letter to Haller, December 29, 1521 (vii., 187).

 
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Posted by on 15 Jun 2018 in Church History, Zwingli