On Translating: Jerome

Horace too, an acute and learned writer, in his Art of Poetry gives the same advice to the skilled translator:—

And care not thou with over anxious thought
To render word for word.

Terence has translated Menander; Plautus and Cæcilius the old comic poets. Do they ever stick at words? Do they not rather in their versions think first of preserving the beauty and charm of their originals?

Jerome, in other words, advises translators to translate sense and not woodenly and literally.  That is, it must be said, what distinguishes good translations from bad: beginners from seasoned pros.  In fact, you can easily spot an unskilled translation by a beginning translator if the text is hobbled by an overly unwieldy literalism.

Beginners think that the purpose of translation is to render one word in one language into one word in another language.  But nothing destroys meaning quite as quickly.

Experts understand that living within the language one is translating, immersing oneself in it, and thus thinking in it is the only way to reliably bring it from one tongue into another.

When translators can read a sentence and put the sense of it, and cling to the sense of it, in another language, they have arrived.

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Glaube

Mohr Siebeck sent this volume (encyclopedia really) for review some time back and I’ve finally worked through the massive work.  My review will post tomorrow.  But take note, it will assert that there’s a bit good, a bit bad, and a bit ugly.

Glaube: Das Verständnis des Glaubens im frühen Christentum und in seiner jüdischen und hellenistisch-römischen Umwelt, Hrsg. v. Jörg Frey, Benjamin Schliesser u. Nadine Ueberschaer, unter Mitarbeit von Kathrin Hager, 2017. XXV, 957 Seiten. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 373.

»Glaube« wurde im frühen Christentum zum zentralen religiösen Begriff und zur beherrschenden Bezeichnung des Gottesverhältnisses. Keine jüdische oder griechisch-römische Schrift vor oder neben dem Neuen Testament verwendet das Wortfeld »Glaube« in vergleichbarer Dichte. Zugleich ist die frühchristliche Rede vom Glauben eingebunden in ein komplexes Geflecht von Vorstellungen und Bildern, die den Verstehenshorizont der Adressatinnen und Adressaten bedingen und dem Wort »Glaube« kommunikative Bedeutung verleihen. Der vorliegende Band enthält Untersuchungen zum Verständnis des Glaubens in den Schriften des Neuen Testaments sowie in grundlegenden Texten des Alten Testaments, des antiken und rabbinischen Judentums, der griechisch-römischen Welt, der Apostolischen Väter und der Alten Kirche. Kirchengeschichtliche und systematisch-theologische Reflexionen zum Glaubensbegriff beschließen ihn.

Contents:

  • – Benjamin Schliesser: Faith in Early Christianity. An Encyclopedic and Bibliographical Outline
  • Anja Klein: »Wie hast Du’s mit dem Glauben, Israel«. Der Glaubensbegriff im Alten Testament
  • Frank Ueberschaer: Πίστις in der Septuaginta, oder: Der Glaube der Siebzig. Von was spricht die Septuaginta, wenn sie von πίστις schreibt?
  • Friedrich Reiterer: Dimensionen des Glaubens. Das Zeugnis spätalttestamentlicher Schriften in der Septuaginta
  • Anke Dorman: Abraham’s Happiness and Faith in the Book of Jubilees
  • Martina Böhm: Zum Glaubensverständnis des Philo von Alexandrien. Weisheitliche Theologie in der 1. Hälfte des 1. Jh. n. Chr.
  • Dennis R. Lindsay: Πίστις in Flavius Josephus and the New Testament
  • Stefan Krauter: »Glaube« im Zweiten Makkabäerbuch
  • Michael Tilly: Der Begriff des »Glaubens« in der rabbinischen Traditionsliteratur – Peter Arzt-Grabner: Zum alltagssprachlichen Hintergrund von πίστις. Das Zeugnis der dokumentarischen Papyri
  • Rainer Hirsch-Luipold: Religiöse Tradition und individueller Glaube. Πίστις und πιστεύειν bei Plutarch als Hintergrund zum neutestamentlichen Glaubensverständnis
  • Teresa Morgan: Πίστις Between Theology, Ethics, Ecclesiology, and Eschatology
  • Thomas Schumacher: Den Römern ein Römer. Die paulinischen Glaubensaussagen vor dem Hintergrund des römisch-lateinischen fides -Begriffes
  • Michael Wolter: Die Wirklichkeit des Glaubens. Ein Versuch zur Bedeutung des Glaubens bei Paulus
  • Jakob Spaeth: Der Glaube des Einzelnen und der Glaube der Gemeinschaft im Ersten Korintherbrief
  • Christfried Böttrich: Glaube im lukanischen Doppelwerk
  • Matthias Konradt: Die Rede vom Glauben in Heilungsgeschichten und die Messianität Jesu im Matthäusevangelium
  • Nadine Ueberschaer: »… damit ihr glaubt, dass Jesus der Christus ist, der Sohn Gottes…«. Das Johannesevangelium als Medium der Glaubensvermittlung
  • Karl-Wilhelm Niebuhr: Glaube im Stresstest. Πίστις im Jakobusbrief
  • Benjamin Schliesser: Glauben und Denken im Hebräerbrief und bei Paulus. Zwei frühchristliche Perspektiven auf die Rationalität des Glaubens
  • Bernhard Mutschler: Kanonische »Vollender des Glaubens«? Integrierender und belastbarer Glaube als Grundbegriff des Christseins in den Pastoralbriefen und die Frage nach der Bedeutung des Glaubens im (frühen) Christentum
  • Jörg Frey: Between Holy Tradition and Christian Virtues? The Use of πίστις / πιστεύειν in Jude and 2 Peter
  • Bernhard Mutschler: Glaube als Transformationsraum für Kirche und Gemeinde? Zum Glaubensverständnis des Polykarp von Smyrna
  • Wolfgang Grünstäudl: Kontinuität und Innovation. Πίστις im Ersten Clemensbrief und den Ignatianen
  • Jim Kelhoffer: Faith and Righteousness in Second Clement : Probing the Purported Influence of ‘Late Judaism’ and the Beginnings of ‘Early Catholicism’
  • Beatrice Wyss: Gott denken oder Gott glauben: Zur Rolle der Πίστις in den Stromateis des Klemens
  • Tobias Nicklas/Veronika Niederhofer: »Glaube« und »Glauben« in den apokryphen Akten des Paulus und der Thekla
  • Enno Edzard Popkes: Glaube und Erkenntnis – die Soteriologie des Johannesevangeliums und des Thomasevangeliums als Kontrast- und Konkurrenzkonzepte
  • Peter Opitz: Die Rezeption des paulinischen Glaubensverständnisses in der reformierten Tradition am Beispiel von Heinrich Bullingers Römerbriefauslegung
  • Volker Leppin: Sola fide und monastische Existenz. Die Amalgamierung von Paulus und Mystik in Luthers Römerbriefauslegung
  • Anne Käfer: Glaube als Beziehungsfrage. Ein fundamentaltheologisches Gespräch mit Karl Barth und Friedrich Schleiermacher
  • Johanna Rahner: Glaube. Katholische Thesen zu einem scheinbar protestantischen Thema

 

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Calvin Knew Something The Emergents, the Seeker Sensitives, and the Mega-Churches Will Never Know…

Those who are strong only in fervor and sharpness, but are not fortified with solid doctrine, weary themselves in their vigorous efforts, make a great noise, rave, [and] make no headway because they build without a foundation.  — John Calvin

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Please Remember, There’s Just a Week Left…

Before the June Carnival goes live.  Send in those submissions!    Join these bloggers in the  Carnival Hall of Fame!

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The Pope Writes Zwingli: And Zwingli Responds to the Bearer of the Letter

Pope Adrian wrote Zwingli on 23 January, 1523-

“Adrian, Pope, the sixth [of the name], to his dear son salutations and the Apostolical benediction: We send the venerable brother Ennius, Bishop of Verulam, our domestic prelate and Nuncio of the Apostolic See, a man distinguished for prudence and fidelity, to that unconquerable nation most completely linked unto us and to the Holy See, in order that he may treat with it respecting things of the highest importance to us and the Holy See, and to the entire Christian commonwealth. Although he is enjoined to conduct our affairs with your nation openly and in public, yet because we have a certain knowledge of your distinguished merits and especially love and prize your loyalty, and also place particular confidence in your honesty, we have commissioned this Bishop, our Nuncio, to hand over to you in private our letter, and declare our best intentions toward you. We exhort your devotion in the Lord, and that you have all confidence in Him, and with the same disposition, in which we are inclined to remember your honour and profit, to bestir yourself also in our affairs and in those of the Apostolic See. For which you will earn no small thanks from us.

“Given at Rome at St. Peter’s, under the ring of the Fisherman, January 23, 1523, of our pontificate the first year.”

Zwingli wasn’t about to agree to abandon Reform just to get a plumb reward from the Pope. So he read it, and, according to a letter he wrote his mentor and friend Thomas Wyttenbach, ‘The Pope is the Antichrist’ (letter of 23 June, 1523- SS VII,300)-

zwingli_7-300

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Basel 1516: Erasmus’ Edition of the New Testament

The authors of this very useful new book are Kaspar von Greyerz/Silvana Seidel Menchi/Martin Wallraff

It contains the following:

Preface

The Novum Instrumentum 1516 and its Philological Background

  • Mark Vessey: Basel 1514: Erasmus’ Critical Turn
  • Erika Rummel: Biblical Humanism
  • August den Hollander: Late Medieval Vernacular Bible Production in the Low Countries
  • Ignacio García Pinilla:Reconsidering the Relationship between the Complutensian Polyglot Bible and Erasmus’ Novum Testamentum

The Text of the New Testament and its Additions

  • Patrick Andrist: Structure and History of the Biblical Manuscripts Used by Erasmus for His 1516 Edition
  • Andrew J. Brown: The Manuscript Sources and Textual Character of Erasmusʼ 1516 Greek New Testament
  • Martin Wallraff: Paratexte der Bibel: Was Erasmus edierte außer dem Neuen Testament
  • Miekske van Poll-van de Lisdonk: Die Annotationes in Novum Testamentum im Rahmen von Erasmus’ Werken zur Bibel
  • Jan Krans: Deconstructing the Vulgate: Erasmus’ Philological Work in the Capita and the Soloecismi
  • Silvana Seidel Menchi: How to Domesticate the New Testament: Erasmus’ Dilemmas (1516–1535)

Communication and Reception

  • Valentina Sebastiani: The Impact of Erasmus’ New Testament on the European Market (1516–1527): Considerations Regarding the Production and Distribution of a Publishing Success
  • Marie Barral-Baron: Erasmus and the New Testament: Innovation and Subversion?
  • Greta Kroeker: Theological and Humanistic Legacies of Erasmus in the Age of Reform
  • Sundar Henny: Unmittelbarkeit und Überlieferung: Erasmus und Beza zum Status des neutestamentlichen Textes
  • Christine Christ-von Wedel: Die Nachwirkung des Neuen Testamentes von Erasmus in den reformatorischen Kirchen

ISD (Mohr’s North American distributor) has provided a review copy.

The editors have as their aim the twofold purpose of commemorating the publication of Erasmus’s New Testament and documenting current Erasmus and humanist biblical scholarship. The present volume collects essays which were presented at a conference addressing those dual issues.

In their preface the editors describe their project and the contents of the volume. They also discuss the quite interesting fact that Erasmus’ chief interest was his Latin edition of the New Testament, not the Greek along with the main motif of Erasmus which appears to have been addressing the tension between theology and philology,

… a tension that tormented the humanist in the last 20 years of his life, that split his legacy into two opposing currents, and that still today noticeably characterizes studies devoted to him (p. xviii).

A cursory glance at the table of contents above indicates just how seriously the editors take these tensions. From Vessey’s illuminating discussion of Erasmus’ turn to critical scholarship to Rummel’s work on his biblical humanism and all the way to Wedel’s amazingly interesting description of the reception of Erasmus’s New Testament in the Reformed Church, the tensions are explicated.

Wedel’s essay in particular grabbed the present reviewer’s attention given the subject matter and held my attention with probing observations like

‘For Huldrych Zwingli, Heinrich Bullinger, and John Calvin the Latin translation of Erasmus was their foundational text.’ (p. 292, my rendition).

This is noteworthy, given the general perception that the Swiss Reformers were more interested in the Greek than the Latin. And yet the Latin text of Erasmus was their ‘go to’ source for discussion and debate (doubtless because more clerics understood Latin than Greek).

On the whole, the volume is immensely instructive. Along with the textual contents there are also numerous illustrative plates, an index of authors and editors, and an index of proper names. The work moves scholarship forward. Brilliantly. Consequently, it is very much worth your time.

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Writing: An Observation

‪Writing is addictive. Once you’ve published something you literally cannot stop writing, and publishing. #randomness ‬

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Proof Edits

We’re at the proof editing stage of this beauty- bit.ly/2mUojC7, and V&R is a pleasure to work with as are all of our contributors.  What a smart bunch of gifted writers.   Finally, I have to say, Jon Balserak is the dream co-editor. What a guy.

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That Carrier Plant Trump ‘Saved’? Yeah, It’s Moving to Mexico

Carrier, the heating and air-conditioning manufacturer, is laying off more than 600 employees from its Indianapolis plant next month, the same plant Trump vowed to keep on American soil, per CNBC. Those manufacturing jobs will go to Mexico, where labor is significantly cheaper.

Why it matters: Trump heralded the November deal as proof he’d live up to his pledge to protect U.S. jobs. And this comes just a day after Ford announced that it will move production of its Focus model to China, just months after pressure from the Trump administration resulted in its cancelling plans to make it in Mexico; this was instead of keeping the jobs in the U.S., where the car is currently made.

Refresher on the deal: Trump agreed to give Carrier, a unit of United Technologies, up to $7 million if it continued to employ at least 1,069 people at the facility for 10 years, rather than moving it abroad in search of cheaper labor, as originally planned. Carrier also vowed to invest $16 million into the plant. But just a month after the deal was made, CEO Greg Hayes said the $16 million would be invested in automation.

So, Donny, thanks for nothing.

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No

Gaga can sing but she is as far from a theologian as I am from a singer.  Furthermore, many of her views are contrary to the teaching of historic Christianity.  This event is nothing but an attempt by the ‘Church’ to pander to popular culture.  In short, they’ve sold the Christian faith out.

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Quote of the Weekend

Woe to him that is alone. David was alone when Satan drew him to defile his neighbor’s wife. While the sheep flock together they are safe, as being under the shepherd’s eye. But if one straggle from the rest, it is quickly a prey to the ravenous wolf. It is no hard matter to rob that house that stands far from neighbors. The cruel pirate Satan watches for those vessels that sail without a convoy. — GEORGE SWINNOCK

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The Latest Defense Fad For Rapists: Blame Bullying…

A former Vanderbilt football player charged with raping an unconscious female student in a dorm room in June 2013 was pressured and bullied into participating, his lawyer contended in the opening of his trial Monday.

In opening statements, defense attorney Katie Hagan said trial jurors must determine if Brandon E. Banks was acting under duress during the rape, which has led to convictions and prison sentences for two of his three teammates also charged in the incident.

On Monday, Assistant District Attorney Jan Norman opened the trial by telling jurors, in graphic detail, that a video shows Banks assaulting the student with a water bottle. Banks’ cellphone also contained 23 of 41 images of the assault, Norman said. At times during the rape, the players responded with laughter and applause, Norman said.

“They’re memorializing each other’s accomplishments in that room — what they were doing, what they were cheering each other on to do, what they were encouraging each other to do,” Norman said in Davidson County Criminal Court. Hagan countered that teammate Brandon Vandenburg “was pressuring and goading” Banks throughout the incident.

That’s right- it’s the ‘I was bullied into being a rapist’ defense…  You aren’t responsible for your actions, precious millennial.  You’re a rapist because you didn’t want to be teased by your bros.

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Not Even Close…

This is why the Fathers are, on the whole, completely useless-

A certain monk asked St. Anthony the Great, “What must I do to be saved?” The elder answered him, “Don’t trust in your own righteousness, don’t worry about what’s past, and constrain your tongue and your stomach.” – Saint Anthony the Great (251-356).

Not. Even. Close.  Ugh.

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Why Do Some People Swear So Much?

Because profanity is the only tool the weak minded have for forceful self expression.‬

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Generally It’s the People Going to Hell Who Say ‘Only God can Judge Me’

Sources at the USCCB confirmed today that notorious womanizer and overall prick Brody Kakedelis, who once attended St. Thomas More Academy, will most likely end up in hell, despite a new tattoo he has on his forearm reading, “Only God Can Judge Me.”

32-year-old Kakedelis, who has reportedly been involved in numerous altercations with law enforcement after nights of binge drinking and getting into fights with at least three live-in girlfriends, is rumored to have told friends that only God could judge him, before telling them to mind their own business before “there would be a misunderstanding.”

Kakedelis has said that the new tattoo, which is just above one of the last supper, refers to him being misunderstood most of his life, though most family and friends close to the 32-year-old have testified to the contrary, conceding that “he never was in fact misunderstood, but that he was just a straight up a-hole.”

“Yeah, he’s a prick,” Kakedelis’ mother told EOTT. “Don’t get me wrong, I love him dearly, but that’s mainly because he’s my son. Even then it’s really a huge test of the will.”

Kakedelis refuted claims by members of the community, including that of his parish priest as well as his 4-year-old baby sister, saying “Eff everyone… you all ain’t God, and you don’t have the right to judge.”

“Have I made mistakes, yeah,” Kakedelis told EOTT in between hits from his playboy logo-shaped bong. “But so has everyone else, and I’m not gonna sit here and be judged by anyone but the man above. I pray every night as I get high, so don’t judge, cause you don’t know my soul. Let he who has not bullied smaller people around every weekend just to get a few laughs, and then taking them and shoving them into a garbage can at a club, before proceeding to take his own shirt off and flexing in front of everyone cast the first stone.”

At press time, Kakedelis is taking his crucifix off so that it won’t get wet when he takes a body shot off the girl he just met at the nightclub.

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This Is Precisely Why!

This is precisely why every theologian should be actively denouncing evil-

“Silence in the face of evil is itself evil . . . Not to speak is to speak. Not to act is to act.”

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America…

Americans should have the same health insurance that the Congress has.

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Quartz Hill’s Redesigned Website

Is fantastic!  Take a look!

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The Pat Graham Festschrift

Get the volume here.

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Grammar Matters…

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