Category Archives: Jud

Fun Facts From Church History: The Reformation of the Church Requires an Educated Clergy

Zwingli was among the first to recognize the fact that without a learned clergy there would be no use in attempts to reform the Church.  Consequently…



Zwingli sought to reform the Carolinum as well as the churches, as a necessary part of the great work of the Reformation.

Accordingly, on the 19th of June, in the same year [i.e., 1525], he substituted for the choir-service what he called “prophecy,” according to 1 Cor. 14, thus engrafting upon the Carolinum a higher institution which transformed it into a remarkably practical school of theology, ancient languages, and elementary science.

It is here that Zwingli accomplished his greatest work, as an educator. The school was in session every week-day, Friday excepted, and was opened at 7 o’clock in the morning, in the summer, and at 8 o’clock, in the winter. A month’s vacation was granted three times a year.

pellicanThe course of study centered on the Bible. The first hour, i. e. the “prophecy” proper, was given to exegesis, with some elements of systematic and practical theology to meet the wants of the Reformation.

The second hour consisted of a divine service, in which the people of the city took part with the students, among whom were also town-parsons, predicants, canons, and chaplains. Here the same Scriptures were treated again, but so simplified that the people could understand them; and we may add that the students themselves not only obtained a clearer knowledge from this repetition but they also learned, in a most practical manner, how to present the truth in their future charges.

Friday was market-day, and the people from the country came to hear the preaching, which was largely intended for their special benefit. The afternoon of each school-day was devoted to the study of the languages and elementary science.

judThe first professor chosen to assist Zwingli was Ceporin, a Greek and Hebrew scholar of great merit. He was elected, June 5, 1525, but he had been teaching at Zurich, in 1522, and later, at Basel, where his Greek grammar was printed.  At the Carolinum, he filled the chair of professor of Hebrew, but only till December 20th of the same year, when he died from over-exertion, at the age of 26.

In March, the following spring, the learned Pellican became his successor. Jacob Ammann was, at the same time elected professor of Latin and Rudolph Collin, professor of Greek. Megander, Leo Jud, and Myconius also assisted Zwingli. Myconius, however, taught at the Fraumunster School, but he conducted an exercise in New Testament exegesis there, every afternoon at three o’clock, which crowds of the laity and students attended, whereas Zwingli had charge of Old Testament exegesis, at the Carolinum, besides being its head and also the pastor of a congregation.

The call of Pellican includes the salary to be paid him, which was to be equal to Zwingli’s, namely, sixty to seventy florins and lodging.*

Without an educated clergy, the Church can never be reformed.

*Zwingli, U. The Christian Education of Youth, (pp. 45–48).

Leo Jud on the Anniversary of his Death

Leo Jud…

… was born in 1482, the son of a priest in Alsass, studied with Zwingli at Basle, and became his successor as priest at Einsiedeln, 1519, and his colleague and faithful assistant as minister of St. Peter’s in Zurich since 1523. He married in the first year of his pastorate at Zurich. His relation to Zwingli has been compared with the relation of Melanchthon to Luther. He aided Zwingli in the second disputation, in the controversy with the Anabaptists, and with Luther, edited and translated several of his writings, and taught Hebrew in the Carolinum.

Zwingli called him his “dear brother and faithful co-worker in the gospel of Jesus Christ.” He was called to succeed the Reformer after the catastrophe of Cappel; but he declined on account of his unfitness for administrative work, and recommended Bullinger, who was twenty years younger. He continued to preach and to teach till his death, and declined several calls to Wurtemberg and Basle.

He advocated strict discipline and a separation of religion from politics. He had a melodious voice, and was a singer, musician, and poet, but excelled chiefly as a translator into German and Latin.

He wrote a Latin and two German catechisms, and translated Thomas à Kempis’ Imitatio Christi, Augustin’s De Spiritu et Litera, the first Helvetic Confession, and other useful books into German, besides portions of the Bible. He prepared also a much esteemed Latin version of the Old Testament, which is considered his best work. He often consulted in it his colleagues and Michael Adam, a converted Jew. He did not live to see the completion, and left this to Bibliander and Pellican. It appeared in a handsome folio edition, 1543, with a preface by Pellican, and was several times reprinted.

He lived on a miserable salary with a large family, and yet helped to support the poor and entertained strangers, aided by his industrious and pious wife, known in Zurich as “Mutter Leuin.”

Four days before his death, June 19, 1542, he summoned his colleagues to his chamber, spoke of his career with great humility and gratitude to God, and recommended to them the care of the church and the completion of his Latin Bible. His death was lamented as a great loss by Bullinger and Calvin and the people of Zurich.  — Philip Schaff

#ICYMI – Newly Discovered Portraits of the Reformers Have Been Put on Display in Zurich

And they’re on display at the Zurich Central Library:

Sechs Gemälde aus der Reformationszeit schlummerten dreizehn Jahre im Keller des baugeschichtlichen Archivs in Zürich. Nun sind die wichtigen Zeugen der Reformation in der Zentralbibliothek zu sehen.

«Das war wie Weihnachten», sagt Jochen Hesse, Leiter der Graphischen Sammlung der Zentralbibliothek Zürich über die sechs Wandbilder, die sie geschenkt bekam. Hesse hatte die sechs Doppelporträts aus der Reformationszeit 2013 zufällig bei einem Besuch im baugeschichtlichen Archiv der Stadt Zürich entdeckt. Sie lagerten dort seit ihrer Restaurierung vor dreizehn Jahren.

«Ich war neugierig und fragte nach Herkunft und Besitzer», erzählt er. So erfuhr er, dass die Bilder aus dem Haus des Buchdruckers Christoph Froschauer stammten, der durch den Druck von Werken der Reformatoren ein wichtiger Förderer der Reformation in Zürich wurde. Als Eigentümerin der Liegenschaft an der Froschaugasse waren inzwischen die Schaeppi Liegenschaften Besitzer der Bilder.

Christmas indeed! Read the rest.



Die Reformatoren übersetzen

Die Reformatoren übersetzen: Theologisch-politische Dimensionen bei Leo Juds (1482–1542) Übersetzungen von Zwinglis und Bullingers Schriften ins Lateinische

9783290178703Der Prediger, Liederdichter, Dozent und Bibelübersetzer Leo Jud gehörte zu den engsten Mitarbeitern Zwinglis. Erstmalig widmet sich eine Untersuchung seinen 1535 in Zürich erschienenen lateinischen Übersetzungen von Huldrych Zwinglis «Ußlegen und gründ der Schlußreden» (1523) und Heinrich Bullingers «Von dem unverschampten Fräfel, ergerlichem Verwyrren und unwarhafftem Leeren der selbstgesandten Widertöuffern» (1531).

Nach einer historischen, übersetzungswissenschaftlichen und philologischen Analyse der Abweichungen zu den Originalen interpretiert Christian Hild diese Ergebnisse auf ihre Relevanz für theologisch-politische Dimensionen in Bezug auf die Zürcher Kirche. Vor diesem Hintergrund erscheinen bisherige Forschungsergebnisse sowohl zum theologischen Profil Leo Juds als auch zu den konfessionspolitischen Entwicklungen der Jahre 1534/ 1535 in einem neuen Licht.

This new work arrived from TVZ some weeks ago.  It is a technical masterpiece of mind-stretching scientific textual history.  The volume is simple to describe: the author first recreates and re-presents Leo Jud as translator and as a man of his time who drew inspiration from many learned Humanists and continued their tradition of providing translations of important volumes.

The second segment of the volume is a thorough and meticulous examination of Jud’s translation from Latin into German of one of Zwingli’s more important books and then in the third segment of the tome is an examination of the translation of one of Bullinger’s chief works.

Jud saw the value of these works and he wanted to make them available to a much wider audience.  And that is exactly what he did.

The particular value of the present volume is the impressive description of Jud’s translational techniques.  This lends credence to the long held opinion of many historians that Jud was one of the premier translators of his day.  He most certainly was.

Yet this volume will not appeal to large segments of the population.  Certainly those interested in the 16th century Reformation in Zurich will be keen to read it.  And those working in translation theory too would benefit from a reading of it.  As well, text critics can learn a thing or two about how to organize and present research from it.  But on the whole this is a specialist book for specialists.  It aims to discuss and describe issues to and for a community of scholars who number less than those who would attend a Mariah Carey concert on a Summer evening in Central Park.  Which is why, frankly, TVZ is to be applauded so vigorously.  They publish books because their subject matter matters and not simply to make a giant profit.

Perhaps, then, the greatest lesson to be learned from this learned volume is by American publishers who far too often only publish things they imagine will reap huge income.  Perhaps they can too, one day, learn to publish on the basis of merit and not money.

A New Volume For Students of the Reformation

This looks fantastic