Daily Archives: 20 Apr 2018

The Magician Who Ate the Horse and Cart and Driver…

According to Luther-

There was at Nieuburg a magician named Wildferer, who, one day, swallowed a countryman, with his horse and cart. A few hours afterwards, man, horse, and cart, were all found in a slough, some miles off. I have heard, too, of a seeming monk, who asked a wagoner, that was taking some hay to market, how much he would charge to let him eat his fill of hay? The man said, a kreutzer, whereupon the monk set to work, and had nearly devoured the whole load, when the wagoner drove him off.*

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*The Table Talk of Martin Luther: New Edition trans. William Hazlitt, New Edition. (London: H. G. Bohn, 1857), 251.

A Test

Dear friends, don’t believe every spirit. Test the spirits to see if they are from God because many false prophets have gone into the world. This is how you know if a spirit comes from God: every spirit that confesses that Jesus Christ has come as a human is from God, and every spirit that doesn’t confess Jesus is not from God. This is the spirit of the antichrist, which you have heard is coming and is now already in the world. (1 Jn. 4:1-3)

So This Is Where We Are as a Country

How Writing Happens

For Your Exegetical Reading Pleasure

ἐξ ἡμῶν ἐξῆλθαν ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ ἦσαν ἐξ ἡμῶν, εἰ γὰρ ἐξ ἡμῶν ἦσαν, μεμενήκεισαν ἂν μεθ᾽ ἡμῶν ἀλλ᾽ ἵνα φανερωθῶσιν ὅτι οὐκ εἰσὶν πάντες ἐξ ἡμῶν. (1 Jn. 2:19)

They went out from us, but they were not of us. The meaning of this sentence turns on the understanding of from and of. Both are expressed by the same Greek preposition (“out-of”), which can indicate origin, but also membership of a group.

The first clause, they went out from us, is meant to draw attention to the fact that the antichrists had been members of the congregation, as well as to the fact that they left it. This is brought out in such renderings as, ‘these men went out from (or left) our company,’ ’ (it was) from among us (that) they went out.’—The verb “to go out from” is in the aorist, indicating that the reference is to a definite event in the past.

They were not of us. For “to be of” cp. v. 16. The clause serves to say that the antichrists (that is, the false teachers) have been members only in the outward appearance of things, not in the full sense of the word; hence, “these people really did not belong to our group” (TEV), ‘they were not our real companions,’ ‘their hearts were not fully the same as ours.’

Further rearrangement of the sentence pattern is sometimes idiomatically preferable. It may result in a rendering like, ‘they seemed to be (one) with us but now they have gone out.’

If they had been of us, they would have continued with us. The whole sentence is given in a form that shows it to be contrary to fact. The if-clause is the opposite of the preceding proposition.

The words they had been of us repeat what goes directly before, a repetition that is characteristic for John’s style. If idiom compels the translator to avoid such repetition, he may say, for example, ‘if that (really) had been so.’

The verb of the second clause, “to continue” (lit. “to remain”), is in the pluperfect in the Greek, which tense has the force of a combined aorist and imperfect. It serves here to state that the false teachers would have been with us in the past and would still be with us in the present. This is sometimes better expressed negatively, for example, ‘they would not have left us.’

But they went out, that, lit. “but in-order-that,” represents an ellipsis in the Greek. This ellipsis is to be filled out by repeating the verbal expression of the preceding clause (as RSV does), or by adding a more generic expression, for example,’ but this happened in order that.’

This construction occurs also in Mark 14:49 (the parallel Matt 26:56 is non-elliptical); John 1:8; 9:3; 13:18; 15:25. It often has the connotation of referring to something that is ordained by God. Therefore it can also be rendered by some phrase suggesting divine necessity. This may lead in the present sentence to a rendering like, ‘it had to become plain that they all are not of us.’

It might be plain is in the Greek lit. “they might-be-shown,” then, “they might become known”; or “they might show themselves.” The subject is the same as that of the preceding verbs in the verse, namely, the antichrists. Some receptor languages follow the non-personal construction of RSV, for example, ‘it might be shown,’ ‘it might become known,’ ‘it might become visible/clear.’ In others one can better shift to a rendering like, ‘we (inclusive) might see their situation clearly.’ The next clause indicates what that situation is.

They all are not of us. The Greek word order is, “not they-are all of us.” Rendered as in the RSV, the subject they refers to the antichrists, whereas “all” emphasizes they, and not negates the predicate are … of us. Another possibility is that not negates all, and all … not means “none”; hence, ‘none of them is of us,’ “none of them really belonged to our group” (TEV). Both interpretations are possible, and semantically they do not differ much, but the second one may be a better model of translation.

Quite a different interpretation is followed in versions that take all to be the subject and to refer to the congregation, cp. ‘not all are of us’ (NV), “not all in our company truly belong to it” (NEB). This interpretation would seem to be the less probable one for two reasons. (1) The shift of subject it presupposes would be rather unexpected in this verse. (2) To take not as restricting all (in the sense of, “not all, only some of them”) would require a different Greek word order, namely, “not all they-are of us” instead of “not they-are all of us” (cp. for example, 1 Cor 10:23)*

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* C. Haas, Marinus de Jonge, and J. L. Swellengrebel, A Handbook on the Letters of John, UBS Handbook Series (New York: United Bible Societies, 1994), 63–64.

Sorry, Angry Atheists, But…

I don’t allow anonymous comments.  Sorry, but if you can’t put on your big girl panties and own your words, I have no interest in hearing them.

#ICYMI – Philip Davies is on Academia.edu

daviesAnd he’s uploaded several papers.  Most recently-  The History of Ancient Israel and Judah.  And previously ‘Ancient Israel’ and History:A Response to Norman Whybray and Dualism and Eschatology in 1Qm and first of all Reading and Teaching the Bible.

Enjoy.

And Staring Over Zwingli’s Shoulder Again…

Sometime in April of 1524 Zwingli wrote this little bit: Ordnung von den drei Kilchhören.

Ordnung von den 3 kilchhörinen, so verr die minen herren gevallen wurde.

[1.] Uf Marci sol man 1. fierteil einr stund vor 5. zuo allen kilchen ein zeichen lüten, zuo fünfen das ander, und bald darnach us allen kilchen usgan mit zemenlüten, das man zum Grossen Münster anheben sol und zuo dem Frowenmünster zemenkumen. Da sol ein predge gehalten werden, ein uslegung eines der siben psalmen uf ein halb stund oder stund, demnach das volck gelert werden, wie es alle notturfft da von dem allmechtigen got begeren sölle. Und sol nach end der predge die gemein priesterschafft die siben psalmen, wie vormal gebrucht, gegen einander betten, one die litany, mit dem beschluss des gebettes für die sünd; und demnach one gsang widrum heimkert werden.

[2.] In der krützwochen zuo glicher wys wie uf Marci zuo iedem tag; doch das man uf mentag zuo Sant Peter, zinstag zum Grossen Münster, mitwoch zuom Frowenmünster, wie vor uff Marci bestimpt ist, gang, predge und bitte, damit wytschweiffen, darus gar bald lichtverige erwachsen möcht, und arbeit vermitten werdind und iederman zuo rat und arbeit noch zytlich komen mög.

[3.] Die übrigen krützgeng, von minen herren angesehen, als gen Einsüdlen, uff den Hof, setzend wir irer wysheit heim, in hoffnung, sy werdind hierinn mit got ermessen, welchs das aller gotzgevelligost sye.

When one goes to worship matters. That one goes, matters more. That people have to be told to do it matters most of all.

Signs of the Times

Staring Over Zwingli’s Shoulder…

Zwingli's Study

Zwingli’s Study

In his study on April 20, 1524, one would have seen him write his Eine Epistel vor der “Antwort eines Schwytzer Purens.”

He sends along to a small community words of encouragement as they struggle to reform, encouraging them as well to support their own Reformer-

Huldrich Zuingli embüt allen christlichen leseren gnad und fryd von got und unserm herren Jesu Christo.

Sich, frommer Christ, wie den himelschen vatter lustet, siner götlichen wyßheit liecht vor den wysen und fürsichtigen ze verbergen Mat. 11. [Matth. 11. 25], unnd das den kindischen erscheinen, damitt er all weg im selbs glych sye, der da verderbet die wyßheit der wysen unnd den verstand der fürsichtigen verschupfft [Jes. 29. 14, cf. 1. Cor. 1. 19]; der im selbs ouch den schlechten huffen wellet, damitt er die wysen zuo scham zwinge [1. Cor. 1. 27].

Hie kempffet ein hafengiesser, der gar ghein sprach noch kluogheit kan, dann die er von got und siner muoter gelert hat, mit eim alten schuolmeister, der in vil künsten, voruß des geistlichen retschens – wie heißt es?: rechtens – verschlissen unnd ußgenutzet ist.

Welcher aber sich uff die götlichen warheit bas verstand und das gotswort eigenlicher bruche, wirdst du in dym gleubigen hertzen innen. Darumb lassend darvon, ir gewaltigen diser welt, die leer Christi ze durächten. Do Christus getödt, ward er durch die vischer in der welt verkündet und nam me zuo, denn do er lyblich hie was. Also wenn ir die wenen vertriben han, werdend die hafner, müller, glaser, tuochschärer, schuochmacher und schnyder leeren. Es ist ietz an denen; die vischer hand es vor gethon.

Ouch, lieben schueler des Gebwylers, wellend ir des bapstes unnd der rethorick bericht werden, blybend bym Gebwyler; denn Hans Fueßli kan nüt darmit. Wellen ir aber die götlichen warheit clar hören, so zühend von dem retor und kummend zuo dem hafengiesser. Verstand es ieder imm besten. Bis hiemit gottes. Des bistu ouch, du wellist oder nit. Der wirt ouch uß dir machen ein geschirr zuo eer oder spott, wie er wil [cf. Röm. 9. 21]; er ist gott.

And God is with the Reformers.