Zwinglius Redivivus

Fighting the good fight and running the race.

Archive for February 8th, 2018

The Last Word of the Day Goes to the Septuagint

And the first word of the Septuagint is this:

gottingen-septuagint1 1 Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἐποίησεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν. 2 ἡ δὲ γῆ ἦν ἀόρατος καὶ ἀκατασκεύαστος, καὶ σκότος ἐπάνω τῆς ἀβύσσου, καὶ πνεῦμα θεοῦ ἐπεφέρετο ἐπάνω τοῦ ὕδατος. 3 καὶ εἶπεν ὁ θεός Γενηθήτω φῶς. καὶ ἐγένετο φῶς. 4 καὶ εἶδεν ὁ θεὸς τὸ φῶς ὅτι καλόν. καὶ διεχώρισεν ὁ θεὸς ἀνὰ μέσον τοῦ φωτὸς καὶ ἀνὰ μέσον τοῦ σκότους. 5 καὶ ἐκάλεσεν ὁ θεὸς τὸ φῶς ἡμέραν καὶ τὸ σκότος ἐκάλεσεν νύκτα. καὶ ἐγένετο ἑσπέρα καὶ ἐγένετο πρωί, ἡμέρα μία.6 Καὶ εἶπεν ὁ θεός Γενηθήτω στερέωμα ἐν μέσῳ τοῦ ὕδατος καὶ ἔστω διαχωρίζον ἀνὰ μέσον ὕδατος καὶ ὕδατος. καὶ ἐγένετο οὕτως.

7 καὶ ἐποίησεν ὁ θεὸς τὸ στερέωμα, καὶ διεχώρισεν ὁ θεὸς ἀνὰ μέσον τοῦ ὕδατος, ὃ ἦν ὑποκάτω τοῦ στερεώματος, καὶ ἀνὰ μέσον τοῦ ὕδατος τοῦ ἐπάνω τοῦ στερεώματος. 8 καὶ ἐκάλεσεν ὁ θεὸς τὸ στερέωμα οὐρανόν. καὶ εἶδεν ὁ θεὸς ὅτι καλόν. καὶ ἐγένετο ἑσπέρα καὶ ἐγένετο πρωί, ἡμέρα δευτέρα.9 Καὶ εἶπεν ὁ θεός Συναχθήτω τὸ ὕδωρ τὸ ὑποκάτω τοῦ οὐρανοῦ εἰς συναγωγὴν μίαν, καὶ ὀφθήτω ἡ ξηρά. καὶ ἐγένετο οὕτως. καὶ συνήχθη τὸ ὕδωρ τὸ ὑποκάτω τοῦ οὐρανοῦ εἰς τὰς συναγωγὰς αὐτῶν, καὶ ὤφθη ἡ ξηρά. 10 καὶ ἐκάλεσεν ὁ θεὸς τὴν ξηρὰν γῆν καὶ τὰ συστήματα τῶν ὑδάτων ἐκάλεσεν θαλάσσας. καὶ εἶδεν ὁ θεὸς ὅτι καλόν.

11 καὶ εἶπεν ὁ θεός Βλαστησάτω ἡ γῆ βοτάνην χόρτου, σπεῖρον σπέρμα κατὰ γένος καὶ καθʼ ὁμοιότητα, καὶ ξύλον κάρπιμον ποιοῦν καρπόν, οὗ τὸ σπέρμα αὐτοῦ ἐν αὐτῷ κατὰ γένος ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. καὶ ἐγένετο οὕτως. 12 καὶ ἐξήνεγκεν ἡ γῆ βοτάνην χόρτου, σπεῖρον σπέρμα κατὰ γένος καὶ καθʼ ὁμοιότητα, καὶ ξύλον κάρπιμον ποιοῦν καρπόν, οὗ τὸ σπέρμα αὐτοῦ ἐν αὐτῷ κατὰ γένος ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. καὶ εἶδεν ὁ θεὸς ὅτι καλόν. 13 καὶ ἐγένετο ἑσπέρα καὶ ἐγένετο πρωί, ἡμέρα τρίτη.

14 Καὶ εἶπεν ὁ θεός Γενηθήτωσαν φωστῆρες ἐν τῷ στερεώματι τοῦ οὐρανοῦ εἰς φαῦσιν τῆς γῆς τοῦ διαχωρίζειν ἀνὰ μέσον τῆς ἡμέρας καὶ ἀνὰ μέσον τῆς νυκτός καὶ ἔστωσαν εἰς σημεῖα καὶ εἰς καιροὺς καὶ εἰς ἡμέρας καὶ εἰς ἐνιαυτούς, 15 καὶ ἔστωσαν εἰς φαῦσιν ἐν τῷ στερεώματι τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ὥστε φαίνειν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. καὶ ἐγένετο οὕτως.

16 καὶ ἐποίησεν ὁ θεὸς τοὺς δύο φωστῆρας τοὺς μεγάλους, τὸν φωστῆρα τὸν μέγαν εἰς ἀρχὰς τῆς ἡμέρας καὶ τὸν φωστῆρα τὸν ἐλάσσω εἰς ἀρχὰς τῆς νυκτός, καὶ τοὺς ἀστέρας. 17 καὶ ἔθετο αὐτοὺς ὁ θεὸς ἐν τῷ στερεώματι τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ὥστε φαίνειν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, 18 καὶ ἄρχειν τῆς ἡμέρας καὶ τῆς νυκτὸς καὶ διαχωρίζειν ἀνὰ μέσον τοῦ φωτὸς καὶ ἀνὰ μέσον τοῦ σκότους. καὶ εἶδεν ὁ θεὸς ὅτι καλόν. 19 καὶ ἐγένετο ἑσπέρα καὶ ἐγένετο πρωί, ἡμέρα τετάρτη.

20 Καὶ εἶπεν ὁ θεός Ἐξαγαγέτω τὰ ὕδατα ἑρπετὰ ψυχῶν ζωσῶν καὶ πετεινὰ πετόμενα ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς κατὰ τὸ στερέωμα τοῦ οὐρανοῦ. καὶ ἐγένετο οὕτως. 21 καὶ ἐποίησεν ὁ θεὸς τὰ κήτη τὰ μεγάλα καὶ πᾶσαν ψυχὴν ζῴων ἑρπετῶν, ἃ ἐξήγαγεν τὰ ὕδατα κατὰ γένη αὐτῶν, καὶ πᾶν πετεινὸν πτερωτὸν κατὰ γένος. καὶ εἶδεν ὁ θεὸς ὅτι καλά. 22 καὶ εὐλόγησεν αὐτὰ ὁ θεὸς λέγων Αὐξάνεσθε καὶ πληθύνεσθε καὶ πληρώσατε τὰ ὕδατα ἐν ταῖς θαλάσσαις, καὶ τὰ πετεινὰ πληθυνέσθω ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. 23 καὶ ἐγένετο ἑσπέρα καὶ ἐγένετο πρωί, ἡμέρα πέμπτη.24 Καὶ εἶπεν ὁ θεός Ἐξαγαγέτω ἡ γῆ ψυχὴν ζῶσαν κατὰ γένος, τετράποδα καὶ ἑρπετὰ καὶ θηρία τῆς γῆς κατὰ γένος. καὶ ἐγένετο οὕτως.

25 καὶ ἐποίησεν ὁ θεὸς τὰ θηρία τῆς γῆς κατὰ γένος καὶ τὰ κτήνη κατὰ γένος καὶ πάντα τὰ ἑρπετὰ τῆς γῆς κατὰ γένος αὐτῶν. καὶ εἶδεν ὁ θεὸς ὅτι καλά. 26 καὶ εἶπεν ὁ θεός Ποιήσωμεν ἄνθρωπον κατʼ εἰκόνα ἡμετέραν καὶ καθʼ ὁμοίωσιν, καὶ ἀρχέτωσαν τῶν ἰχθύων τῆς θαλάσσης καὶ τῶν πετεινῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ τῶν κτηνῶν καὶ πάσης τῆς γῆς καὶ πάντων τῶν ἑρπετῶν τῶν ἑρπόντων ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. 27 καὶ ἐποίησεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν ἄνθρωπον, κατʼ εἰκόνα θεοῦ ἐποίησεν αὐτόν, ἄρσεν καὶ θῆλυ ἐποίησεν αὐτούς. 28 καὶ εὐλόγησεν αὐτοὺς ὁ θεὸς λέγων Αὐξάνεσθε καὶ πληθύνεσθε καὶ πληρώσατε τὴν γῆν καὶ κατακυριεύσατε αὐτῆς καὶ ἄρχετε τῶν ἰχθύων τῆς θαλάσσης καὶ τῶν πετεινῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ πάντων τῶν κτηνῶν καὶ πάσης τῆς γῆς καὶ πάντων τῶν ἑρπετῶν τῶν ἑρπόντων ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς.

29 καὶ εἶπεν ὁ θεός Ἰδοὺ δέδωκα ὑμῖν πᾶν χόρτον σπόριμον σπεῖρον σπέρμα, ὅ ἐστιν ἐπάνω πάσης τῆς γῆς, καὶ πᾶν ξύλον, ὃ ἔχει ἐν ἑαυτῷ καρπὸν σπέρματος σπορίμου—ὑμῖν ἔσται εἰς βρῶσιν—καὶ 30 πᾶσιν τοῖς θηρίοις τῆς γῆς καὶ πᾶσιν τοῖς πετεινοῖς τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ παντὶ ἑρπετῷ ἕρποντι ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, ὃ ἔχει ἐν ἑαυτῷ ψυχὴν ζωῆς, καὶ πάντα χόρτον χλωρὸν εἰς βρῶσιν. καὶ ἐγένετο οὕτως. 31 καὶ εἶδεν ὁ θεὸς τὰ πάντα, ὅσα ἐποίησεν, καὶ ἰδοὺ καλὰ λίαν. καὶ ἐγένετο ἑσπέρα καὶ ἐγένετο πρωί, ἡμέρα ἕκτη.*

And do you know what all that is?  It’s called… wait for it… theology!

______________________
*Wevers, J. W. (Ed.). (1974). Genesis (Vol. I, Ge 1). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Written by Jim

8 Feb 2018 at 9:47 pm

‘Hurt By The Church’: The #ChurchToo Movement

We’re talking these days about those hurt BY the church and those most affected by abuse and other terrible things have adopted the #ChurchToo as the rallying cry of their movement. And in fairness they shoukd be heard.

Along those same lines it’s also time for us to talk about those who hurt the church; those who, by their terrible deeds whilst naming themselves christians, have besmirched the Church and brought it into disrepute.

When will they be held accountable for the damage and harm they have done? #YouToo are accountable for the wrong you have done to the millions of honest, sincere, devoted actual Christians. Make confession of your hypocrisy whoever you are.

Written by Jim

8 Feb 2018 at 7:46 pm

Posted in Modern Culture

Interpreting Revelation and Other Apocalyptic Literature

With historic events seeming to burgeon with signs of the last days, the study of apocalyptic literature–that which is concerned with the end of history as we know it and the coming kingdom of God–has become increasingly relevant. C. Marvin Pate provides a guide to the distinctive content, form, and function of apocalyptic books for those who are interested in exegesis of biblical apocalyptic materials and related literature outside of the Bible.

Pate considers the background of Old Testament apocalyptic literature, such as Daniel, demonstrating its foundational role for properly understanding the New Testament discussions. He also elucidates the tie that binds all apocalyptic writing together–the coming restoration of Israel–before delving into his main emphasis on Revelation and other New Testament writings. Key principles of interpretation specific to this genre are provided for the reader, as well as steps to communicate the theological messages of biblical apocalyptic literature to a modern audience often anxious about the implications of the end times. Beyond a basic grounding in the field, Pate’s in-depth explanations also include new insights into the texts, such as viewing the Roman triumphal entry as the key background to the book of Revelation.

Designed for pastors, students, and informed laity, Interpreting Revelation and Other Apocalyptic Literature ensures that readers will gain a foundational understanding of the material, thereby sidestepping the pitfalls of interpreting this literature by the standards of other biblical genres or avoiding the genre altogether due to its complexity.

Fear and trembling is my usual default disposition whenever I see a book on the subject of apocalyptic or the Book of Revelation.  I suppose, to be honest, I’m ‘gun shy’ because of all the absolute rubbish I’ve read over the years on the topic.  Nine times out of ten, the volumes are trite, silly, and even substandard academically.  The majority tend to be just plain idiotic.

So I was a bit afraid when invited to review the present volume.  Fortunately, I have been pleasantly surprised.  This is a useful book indeed.

Pate here leads readers, quite carefully, through the relevant issues related to apocalyptic, beginning with the genre itself and the figures of speech commonly found therein.  Next he discusses the historical background of the apocalyptic texts.  Next, the function of apocalypticism in the story of Israel and then he gives a sort of primer for those interpreting apocalyptic texts.  He offers sensible guidance in terms of tools and translations and all those technical things which exegetes must make use of.  He rounds off the volume with a couple of examples of sermon prep on apocalyptic texts and finishes up with a list if selected sources.  Pate also provides a glossary.

Each chapter begins with a block of material titled ‘The Chapter at a Glance’ in which the materials of each section are summarized.  Chapters are then richly festooned with tables and illustrative charts.  And then at the conclusion of each there’s a ‘Chapter in Review’ block.

So much for the form of the work.  Now, the substance.  Does this book do what the publisher’s blurb, cited above, claims it will do?  Yes, indeed it does.  It does exactly what the publisher says it will do, and more.  This is a very fine introduction to a pathway to understanding the apocalyptic materials of the bible.  Make no mistake, it is a general introduction to the genre.  It opens the door to the topic and invites readers in.  It does not, however, fully discuss the historical background nor the interpretative/ exegetical implications of the material and to be fair, it is not trying to.  For that, one needs access to further more detailed monographs.

Here one is introduced to the genre and shown the basic outlines of its study.  That is all, and it is enough for the intended audience.  Indeed, it may be a bit too much for some.

The publisher suggests above that the book is aimed at Pastors, students, and informed laity.  But unless those people can make use of Greek, they will find bits of the book completely beyond their grasp.  Not only is Greek used, it is not transliterated.  Indeed, pages 130ff, 190ff, and others will be completely useless to anyone who doesn’t read Greek.

The interested laity for whom the book is intended had better brush up on their Greek, or just skip over all those places where it is used.  And knowing the linguistic skills of many Pastors and students, they will be skipping over a good bit themselves.

Indeed, to be fair to the author and to the intended audience, it might be suggested that potential readers have at least a year or two of Greek under their belts, along with a College or University course on biblical hermeneutics too, or the book will simply be too overwhelming.

This is a very useful book.  For the proper audience.  That is, for University students who are biblical studies majors or Seminary students who have taken several introductory courses.  Those with less background in the field will not profit as much from it as they could had they the requisite skills to do so.

Written by Jim

8 Feb 2018 at 5:22 pm

Logos on the LXX, and a Discount on some LXX Stuff

Here.

Written by Jim

8 Feb 2018 at 4:42 pm

Posted in LXX

Birds of a Feather Flock Together

Only the immoral can work for the immoral. At some point, the moral will draw a line which they cannot and will not cross, be encouraged to cross it by their immoral boss, and leave.

Written by Jim

8 Feb 2018 at 4:30 pm

Posted in Modern Culture

The Brannan/ Penner Interview: #ICYMI

It’s on LXX stuff, so you have to read it today or you’ll be punished.

Written by Jim

8 Feb 2018 at 2:33 pm

Posted in LXX, Modern Culture

A Septuagint Snippet on International Septuagint Day

1 1 Και ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ κρίνειν τοὺς κριτὰς καὶ ἐγένετο λιμὸς ἐν τῇ γῇ·, καὶ ἐπορεύθη ἀνὴρ ἀπὸ Βαιθλέεμ τῆς Ἰούδα τοῦ παροικῆσαι ἐν ἀγρῷ Μωάβ, αὐτὸς καὶ ἡ γυνὴ αὐτοῦ καὶ οἱ υἱοὶ αὐτοῦ. 2 καὶ ὄνομα τῷ ἀνδρὶ Ἀβιμέλεχ, καὶ ὄνομα τοῖς δυσὶν υἱοῖς αὐτοῦ Μααλὼν καὶ Χελαιών, Ἐφραθαῖοι ἐκ Βαιθλέεμ τῆς Ἰούδα· καὶ ἤλθοσαν εἰς ἀγρὸν Μωὰβ καὶ ἦσαν ἐκεῖ. 3 καὶ ἀπέθανεν Ἀβιμέλεχ ὁ ἀνὴρ τῆς Νωεμίν, καὶ κατελείφθη αὐτὴ καὶ οἱ δύο υἱοὶ αὐτῆς. 4 καὶ ἐλάβοσαν ἑαυτοῖς γυναῖκας Μωαβίτιδας, ὄνομα τῇ μιᾷ Ὀρφά, καὶ ὄνομα τῇ δευτέρᾳ Ῥούθ· καὶ κατῴκησαν ἐκεῖ ὡς δέκα ἔτη. 5 καὶ ἀπέθανον καί γε ἀμφότεροι Μααλὼν καὶ Χελαιών, καὶ κατελείφθη ἡ γυνὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνδρὸς αὐτῆς καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν δύο υἱῶν αὐτῆς. 1 1 Και ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ κρίνειν τοὺς κριτὰς καὶ ἐγένετο λιμὸς ἐν τῇ γῇ·, καὶ ἐπορεύθη ἀνὴρ ἀπὸ Βαιθλέεμ τῆς Ἰούδα τοῦ παροικῆσαι ἐν ἀγρῷ Μωάβ, αὐτὸς καὶ ἡ γυνὴ αὐτοῦ καὶ οἱ υἱοὶ αὐτοῦ. 2 καὶ ὄνομα τῷ ἀνδρὶ Ἀβιμέλεχ, καὶ ὄνομα τοῖς δυσὶν υἱοῖς αὐτοῦ Μααλὼν καὶ Χελαιών, Ἐφραθαῖοι ἐκ Βαιθλέεμ τῆς Ἰούδα· καὶ ἤλθοσαν εἰς ἀγρὸν Μωὰβ καὶ ἦσαν ἐκεῖ. 3 καὶ ἀπέθανεν Ἀβιμέλεχ ὁ ἀνὴρ τῆς Νωεμίν, καὶ κατελείφθη αὐτὴ καὶ οἱ δύο υἱοὶ αὐτῆς. 4 καὶ ἐλάβοσαν ἑαυτοῖς γυναῖκας Μωαβίτιδας, ὄνομα τῇ μιᾷ Ὀρφά, καὶ ὄνομα τῇ δευτέρᾳ Ῥούθ· καὶ κατῴκησαν ἐκεῖ ὡς δέκα ἔτη. 5 καὶ ἀπέθανον καί γε ἀμφότεροι Μααλὼν καὶ Χελαιών, καὶ κατελείφθη ἡ γυνὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνδρὸς αὐτῆς καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν δύο υἱῶν αὐτῆς.*

_________________
*Quast, U. (Ed.). (2006). Ruth (Vol. IV, 3, Ru 1). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Written by Jim

8 Feb 2018 at 1:19 pm

Posted in LXX

Interview with Joan Taylor About Her New Book

It’s a good interview.  Read it here.

Written by Jim

8 Feb 2018 at 12:33 pm

Posted in Modern Culture

Child Sacrifice in Ancient Israel

Ran across this book a little earlier today and thought I’d share news of it in case you haven’t seen it.

Among the many religious acts condemned in the Hebrew Bible, child sacrifice stands out as particularly horrifying. The idea that any group of people would willingly sacrifice their own children to their god(s) is so contrary to modern moral sensibilities that it is difficult to imagine that such a practice could have ever existed. Nonetheless, the existence of biblical condemnation of these rites attests to the fact that some ancient Israelites in fact did sacrifice their children. Indeed, a close reading of the evidence—biblical, archaeological, epigraphic, etc.—indicates that there are at least three different types of Israelite child sacrifice, each with its own history, purpose, and function.

Looks great!

Written by Jim

8 Feb 2018 at 11:56 am

Quote of the Day (From the LXX, of Course)

ἀναστήσαι τὸ δέρμα μου τὸ ἀναντλοῦν ταῦτα·
παρὰ γὰρ κυρίου ταῦτά μοι συνετελέσθη,
ἃ ἐγὼ ἐμαυτῷ συνεπίσταμαι,
ἃ ὁ ὀφθαλμός μου ἑόρακεν καὶ οὐκ ἄλλος·
πάντα δέ μοι συντετέλεσται ἐν κόλπῳ.

“After my skin is destroyed, this I know, that in my flesh I shall see God, whom I shall see for myself, and my eyes shall behold, and not another. How my heart yearns within me!” (Job 19:26-27)

Written by Jim

8 Feb 2018 at 11:43 am

Posted in LXX

Jonah 4 in the Göttingen LXX

4 1 Καὶ ἐλυπήθη Ιωνας λύπην μεγάλην καὶ συνεχύθη. 2 καὶ προσηύξατο πρὸς κύριον καὶ εἶπεν Ὦ κύριε, οὐχ οὗτοι οἱ λόγοι μου ἔτι ὄντος μου ἐν τῇ γῇ μου; διὰ τοῦτο προέφθασα τοῦ φυγεῖν εἰς Θαρσις, διότι ἔγνων ὅτι σὺ ἐλεήμων καὶ οἰκτίρμων, μακρόθυμος καὶ πολυέλεος καὶ μετανοῶν ἐπὶ ταῖς κακίαις. 3 καὶ νῦν, δέσποτα κύριε, λάβε τὴν ψυχήν μου ἀπʼ ἐμοῦ, ὅτι καλὸν τὸ ἀποθανεῖν με ἢ ζῆν με. 4 καὶ εἶπε κύριος πρὸς Ιωναν Εἰ σφόδρα λελύπησαι σύ; 5 καὶ ἐξῆλθεν Ιωνας ἐκ τῆς πόλεως καὶ ἐκάθισεν ἀπέναντι τῆς πόλεως· καὶ ἐποίησεν ἑαυτῷ ἐκεῖ σκηνὴν καὶ ἐκάθητο ὑποκάτω αὐτῆς ἐν σκιᾷ, ἕως οὗ ἀπίδῃ τί ἔσται τῇ πόλει. 6 καὶ προσέταξε κύριος ὁ θεὸς κολοκύνθῃ, καὶ ἀνέβη ὑπὲρ κεφαλῆς τοῦ Ιωνα τοῦ εἶναι σκιὰν ὑπεράνω τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ τοῦ σκιάζειν αὐτῷ ἀπὸ τῶν κακῶν αὐτοῦ· καὶ ἐχάρη Ιωνας ἐπὶ τῇ κολοκύνθῃ χαρὰν μεγάλην. 7 καὶ προσέταξεν ὁ θεὸς σκώληκι ἑωθινῇ τῇ ἐπαύριον, καὶ ἐπάταξε τὴν κολόκυνθαν, καὶ ἀπεξηράνθη. 8 καὶ ἐγένετο ἅμα τῷ ἀνατεῖλαι τὸν ἥλιον καὶ προσέταξεν ὁ θεὸς πνεύματι καύσωνος συγκαίοντι, καὶ ἐπάταξεν ὁ ἥλιος ἐπὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν Ιωνα· καὶ ὠλιγοψύχησε καὶ ἀπελέγετο τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ καὶ εἶπε Καλόν ἀπο θανεῖν με ἢ ζῆν. 9 καὶ εἶπεν ὁ θεὸς πρὸς Ιωναν Εἰ σφόδρα λελύπησαι σὺ ἐπὶ τῇ κολοκύνθῃ; καὶ εἶπε Σφόδρα λελύπημαι ἐγὼ ἕως θανάτου. 10 καὶ εἶπε κύριος Σὺ ἐφείσω ὑπὲρ τῆς κολοκύνθης, ὑπὲρ ἧς οὐκ ἐκακοπάθησας ἐπʼ αὐτὴν καὶ οὐκ ἐξέθρεψας αὐτήν, ἣ ὑπὸ νύκτα ἐγενήθη καὶ ὑπὸ νύκτα ἀπώλετο. 11 ἐγὼ δὲ οὐ φείσομαι ὑπὲρ Νινευη τῆς πόλεως τῆς μεγάλης, ἐν ᾗ κατοικοῦσι πλείους ἢ δώδεκα μυριάδες ἀνθρώπων, οἵτινες οὐκ ἔγνωσαν δεξιὰν αὐτῶν ἢ ἀριστερὰν αὐτῶν, καὶ κτήνη πολλά;

lxx

Written by Jim

8 Feb 2018 at 10:51 am

Posted in LXX

Jonah 3 in the Göttingen LXX

3 1 Καὶ ἐγένετο λόγος κυρίου πρὸς Ιωναν ἐκ δευτέρου λέγων 2 Ἀνάστηθι πορεύθητι εἰς Νινευη τὴν πόλιν τὴν μεγάλην καὶ κήρυξον ἐν αὐτῇ κατὰ τὸ κήρυγμα τὸ ἔμπροσθεν, ὃ ἐγὼ ἐλάλησα πρὸς σὲ. 3 καὶ ἀνέστη Ιωνας καὶ ἐπορεύθη εἰς Νινευη, καθὼς ἐλάλησε κύριος· ἡ δὲ Νινευη ἦν πόλις μεγάλη τῷ θεῷ ὡσεὶ πορείας ὁδοῦ ἡμερῶν τριῶν. 4 καὶ ἤρξατο Ιωνας τοῦ εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν πόλιν ὡσεὶ πορείαν ἡμέρας μιᾶς καὶ ἐκήρυξε καὶ εἶπεν Ἔτι τρεῖς ἡμέραι καὶ Νινευη καταστραφήσεται. 5 καὶ ἐνεπίστευσαν οἱ ἄνδρες Νινευη τῷ θεῷ καὶ ἐκήρυξαν νηστείαν καὶ ἐνεδύσαντο σάκκους ἀπὸ μεγάλου αὐτῶν ἕως μικροῦ αὐτῶν. 6 καὶ ἤγγισεν ὁ λόγος πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα τῆς Νινευη, καὶ ἐξανέστη ἀπὸ τοῦ θρόνου αὐτοῦ καὶ περιείλατο τὴν στολὴν αὐτοῦ ἀφʼ ἑαυτοῦ καὶ περιεβάλετο σάκκον καὶ ἐκάθισεν ἐπὶ σποδοῦ. 7 καὶ ἐκηρύχθη καὶ ἐρρέθη ἐν τῇ Νινευη παρὰ τοῦ βασιλέως καὶ παρὰ τῶν μεγιστάνων αὐτοῦ λέγων Οἱ ἄνθρωποι καὶ τὰ κτήνη καὶ οἱ βόες καὶ τὰ πρόβατα μὴ γευσάσθωσαν μηδὲν μηδὲ νεμέσθωσαν μηδὲ ὕδωρ πιέτωσαν. 8 καὶ περιεβάλοντο σάκκους οἱ ἄνθρωποι καὶ τὰ κτήνη, καὶ ἀνεβόησαν πρὸς τὸν θεὸν ἐκτενῶς· καὶ ἀπέστρεψαν ἕκαστος ἀπὸ τῆς ὁδοῦ αὐτοῦ τῆς πονηρᾶς καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς ἀδικίας τῆς ἐν χερσὶν αὐτῶν λέγοντες 9 Τίς οἶδεν εἰ μετανοήσει ὁ θεὸς καὶ ἀποστρέψει ἐξ ὀργῆς θυμοῦ αὐτοῦ καὶ οὐ μὴ ἀπολώμεθα; 10 καὶ εἶδεν ὁ θεὸς τὰ ἔργα αὐτῶν, ὅτι ἀπέστρεψαν ἀπὸ τῶν ὁδῶν αὐτῶν τῶν πονηρῶν, καὶ μετενόησεν ὁ θεὸς ἐπὶ τῇ κακίᾳ, ᾗ ἐλάλησε τοῦ ποιῆσαι αὐτοῖς, καὶ οὐκ ἐποίησεν.

lxx

Written by Jim

8 Feb 2018 at 10:50 am

Posted in LXX

Jonah 2 In the Göttingen LXX

2 1 Καὶ προσέταξε κύριος κήτει μεγάλῳ καταπιεῖν τὸν Ιωναν· καὶ ἦν Ιωνας ἐν τῇ κοιλίᾳ τοῦ κήτους τρεῖς ἡμέρας καὶ τρεῖς νύκτας. 2 καὶ προσηύξατο Ιωνας πρὸς κύριον τὸν θεὸν αὐτοῦ ἐκ τῆς κοιλίας τοῦ κήτους 3 καὶ εἶπεν
Ἐβόησα ἐν θλίψει μου πρὸς κύριον τὸν θεόν μου, καὶ εἰσήκουσέ μου·
ἐκ κοιλίας ᾅδου κραυγῆς μου ἤκουσας φωνῆς μου.
4 ἀπέρριψάς με εἰς βάθη καρδίας θαλάσσης, καὶ ποταμοί με ἐκύκλωσαν·
πάντες οἱ μετεωρισμοί σου καὶ τὰ κύματά σου ἐπʼ ἐμὲ διῆλθον.
5 καὶ ἐγώ εἶπα Ἀπῶσμαι ἐξ ὀφθαλμῶν σου·
ἆρα προσθήσω τοῦ ἐπιβλέψαι πρὸς τὸν ναὸν τὸν ἅγιόν σου;
6 περιεχύθη μοι ὕδωρ ἕως ψυχῆς,
ἄβυσσος ἐκύκλωσέ με ἐσχάτη,
ἔδυ ἡ κεφαλή μου εἰς σχισμὰς ὀρέων.
7 κατέβην εἰς γῆν, ἧς οἱ μοχλοὶ αὐτῆς κάτοχοι αἰώνιοι,
καὶ ἀναβήτω φθορὰ ζωῆς μου, κύριε ὁ θεός μου.
8 ἐν τῷ ἐκλείπειν ἀπʼ ἐμοῦ τὴν ψυχήν μου τοῦ κυρίου ἐμνήσθην,
καὶ ἔλθοι πρὸς σὲ ἡ προσευχή μου εἰς ναὸν ἅγιόν σου.
9 φυλασσόμενοι μάταια καὶ ψευδῆ ἔλεος αὐτῶν ἐγκατέλιπον.
10 ἐγὼ δὲ μετὰ φωνῆς αἰνέσεως καὶ ἐξομολογήσεως θύσω σοι·
ὅσα ηὐξάμην, ἀποδώσω εἰς σωτηρίαν μου τῷ κυρίῳ.
11 καὶ προσετάγη τῷ κήτει, καὶ ἐξέβαλε τὸν Ιωναν ἐπὶ τὴν ξηράν.

lxx

Written by Jim

8 Feb 2018 at 10:49 am

Posted in LXX

Another Post Celebrating the LXX

From the people of ETC.  They also mention the 50th anniversary of the IOSCS.  Give it a look.  It isn’t festooned with graphics.

Written by Jim

8 Feb 2018 at 10:29 am

Posted in LXX

Jonah 1 in the Göttingen LXX

lxx

ΙΩΝΑΣ

1 1 Καὶ ἐγένετο λόγος κυρίου πρὸς Ιωναν τὸν τοῦ Αμαθι λέγων 2 Ἀνάστηθι καὶ πορεύθητι εἰς Νινευη τὴν πόλιν τὴν μεγάλην καὶ κήρυξον ἐν αὐτῇ, ὅτι ἀνέβη ἡ κραυγὴ τῆς κακίας αὐτῆς πρός με. 3 καὶ ἀνέστη Ιωνας τοῦ φυγεῖν εἰς Θαρσις ἐκ προσώπου κυρίου καὶ κατέβη εἰς Ἰόππην καὶ εὗρε πλοῖον βαδίζον εἰς Θαρσις καὶ ἔδωκε τὸ ναῦλον αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐνέβη εἰς αὐτὸ τοῦ πλεῦσαι μετʼ αὐτῶν εἰς Θαρσις ἐκ προσώπου κυρίου. 4 καὶ κύριος ἐξήγειρε πνεῦμα εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν, καὶ ἐγένετο κλύδων μέγας ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ, καὶ τὸ πλοῖον ἐκινδύνευε συντριβῆναι. 5 καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν οἱ ναυτικοὶ καὶ ἀνεβόων ἕκαστος πρὸς τὸν θεὸν αὐτῶν καὶ ἐκβολὴν ἐποιήσαντο τῶν σκευῶν τῶν ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν τοῦ κουφισθῆναι ἀπʼ αὐτῶν· Ιωνας δὲ κατέβη εἰς τὴν κοίλην τοῦ πλοίου καὶ ἐκάθευδε καὶ ἔρρεγχε. 6 καὶ προσῆλθε πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ πρῳρεὺς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Τί σὺ ῥέγχεις; ἀνάστα ἐπικαλοῦ τὸν θεόν σου, ὅπως διασώσῃ ὁ θεὸς ἡμᾶς καὶ μὴ ἀπολώμεθα. 7 καὶ εἶπαν ἕκαστος πρὸς τὸν πλησίον αὐτοῦ Δεῦτε βάλωμεν κλήρους καὶ ἐπιγνῶμεν τίνος ἕνεκεν ἡ κακία αὕτη ἐστὶν ἐν ἡμῖν. καὶ ἔβαλον κλήρους, καὶ ἔπεσεν ὁ κλῆρος ἐπὶ Ιωναν. 8 καὶ εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτόν Ἀπάγγειλον ἡμῖν τίνος ἕνεκεν ἡ κακία αὕτη ἐστὶν ἐν ἡμῖν. τίς σου ἡ ἐργασία ἐστί; καὶ πόθεν ἔρχῃ, καὶ ἐκ ποίας χώρας καὶ ἐκ ποίου λαοῦ εἶ σύ; 9 καὶ εἶπε πρὸς αὐτούς Δοῦλος κυρίου ἐγώ εἰμι καὶ τὸν κύριον θεὸν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἐγὼ σέβομαι, ὃς ἐποίησε τὴν θάλασσαν καὶ τὴν ξηράν. 10 καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν οἱ ἄνδρες φόβον μέγαν καὶ εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτόν Τί τοῦτο ἐποίησας; διότι ἔγνωσαν οἱ ἄνδρες ὅτι ἐκ προσώπου κυρίου ἦν φεύγων, ὅτι ἀπήγγειλεν αὐτοῖς. 11 καὶ εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτόν Τί σοι ποιήσωμεν, καὶ κοπάσει ἡ θάλασσα ἀφʼ ἡμῶν; ὅτι ἡ θάλασσα ἐπορεύετο καὶ ἐξήγειρε μᾶλλον κλύδωνα. 12 καὶ εἶπεν Ιωνας πρὸς αὐτούς Ἄρατέ με καὶ ἐμβάλετέ με εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν, καὶ κοπάσει ἡ θάλασσα ἀφʼ ὑμῶν· διότι ἔγνωκα ἐγὼ ὅτι διʼ ἐμὲ ὁ κλύδων ὁ μέγας οὗτος ἐφʼ ὑμᾶς ἐστι. 13 καὶ παρεβιάζοντο οἱ ἄνδρες τοῦ ἐπιστρέψαι πρὸς τὴν γῆν καὶ οὐκ ἠδύναντο, ὅτι ἡ θάλασσα ἐπορεύετο καὶ ἐξηγείρετο μᾶλλον ἐπʼ αὐτούς. 14 καὶ ἀνεβόησαν πρὸς κύριον καὶ εἶπαν Μηδαμῶς, κύριε, μὴ ἀπολώμεθα ἕνεκεν τῆς ψυχῆς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τούτου, καὶ μὴ δῷς ἐφʼ ἡμᾶς αἷμα δίκαιον, ὅτι σύ, κύριε, ὃν τρόπον ἐβούλου πεποίηκας. 15 καὶ ἔλαβον τὸν Ιωναν καὶ ἐξέβαλον αὐτὸν εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν, καὶ ἔστη ἡ θάλασσα ἐκ τοῦ σάλου αὐτῆς. 16 καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν οἱ ἄνδρες φόβῳ μεγάλῳ τὸν κύριον καὶ ἔθυσαν θυσίαν τῷ κυρίῳ καὶ ηὔξαντο εὐχάς.*

______________
*Joseph Ziegler, ed., Duodecim Prophetae (vol. XIII; Vetus Testamentum Graecum. Auctoritate Academiae Scientiarum Gottingensis editum; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1984).

Written by Jim

8 Feb 2018 at 9:23 am

Posted in LXX

Chief Tools For Septuagint Studies

Here’s what you need in terms of the basics:

Written by Jim

8 Feb 2018 at 9:21 am

Posted in LXX

International LXX Day: An Interview with T. Muraoka

Another LXX Day interview. And this one is festooned with images of a quite random nature.

Septuaginta &c.

Let the festal gongs ring loudly in the streets! The wait is over: Today is International Septuagint Day. That’s right, it comes only once a year, and that occasion is today.

In order to celebrate appropriately, I post here an interview with one of the most important scholars in the discipline.

View original post 1,603 more words

Written by Jim

8 Feb 2018 at 7:55 am

Posted in Modern Culture

Interview with Dr James K. Aitken

A great interview with the best LXX guy on the planet (and a super nice dude).

Interaction of Traditions

To mark the International Septuagint Day (8 February) we have an interview with Dr James Aitken, an expert in the field. We ask him questions about language research, ancient Greek, and the study of the Septuagint within biblical studies.

james-aitkenJames Aitken is Reader in Hebrew and Early Jewish Studies at the Faculty of Divinity, University of Cambridge. Publications include No Stone Unturned:Greek Inscriptions and Septuagint Vocabulary (Eisenbrauns, 2014) and the T&T ClarkCompanion to the Septuagint (T&T Clark, 2015).

  • Which challenges arise in studying religious canonical texts from both a lexicographical and theological point of view [including linguistic dating of such texts]?

Challenges are always before us from the simple lack in our own knowledge about the ancient world coupled with the sparsity of evidence. The world around the Bible has to be reconstructed from a range of sources, often contradictory and certainly incomplete. While the texts are canonical…

View original post 2,371 more words

Written by Jim

8 Feb 2018 at 5:29 am

Posted in Modern Culture

Ernst Käsemann on The Mistake of Voting for Hitler

Chris Le Keith posted this last year and it’s worth repeating, again:

kasemann“I have admitted earlier that from 1930 to 1933 I too voted for Hitler.  My work in the congregation and for my dissertation left me little time for involvement in politics.  Every night, and for an entire year-and-a-half, while synodical vicar in Barmen, I was forced to experience the civil war at my very door.  I eagerly longed for order.  In family and school we continually heard that the Treaty of Versailles shamefully humiliated us Germans.  Finally, the war left behind six million unemployed in our country.  So my friends and I agreed that only a strong government could help us.  I did come to mistrust Hitler after his intervention on behalf of a criminal storm trooper in Silesia.  But I was naive enough to suppose that we could get rid of him at the next election in four years.  In the meantime, the party of the German Christians was formed.  In the summer of 1933 it grew from four to forty-five members among the representatives of my congregation.  Then, when the so-called Reichsbishop incorporated the evangelical youth groups into the Hitler youth, and when the Roehm putsch eliminated disputes within the Nazi leadership through mass murder, we could no longer ignore our having been handed over to thugs who unflinchingly used force and would yield only to force.  The founding of the Confessing Church at Wuppertal led to political opposition.  As early as the fall of 1933 I declared that the Reichsbishop was a traitor to the evangelical church.  From then on I was hated by the Nazis, later was denounced in the marketplace as a national traitor by the Gauleiter (district leader) in Gelsenkirchen, and was recommended to the higher authorities for assignment to a concentration camp.  The chairman of our congregation lent support in an appeal to headquarters in Berlin.  For either side there was no turning back. . . .

I should like to break off here.  It would lead to a full-scale autobiography if I were to tell how I  had to be a soldier for three years, perhaps to get out of reach of the area command and seizure by the Nazis; how I finally survived the camp at Kreuznach, in which 70,000 prisoners starved, then returned to a heavily bombed congregation. . . .  As a last word and as my bequest, let me call to you in Huguenot style: ‘Résistez!’ Discipleship of the Crucified leads necessarily to resistance to idolatry on every front.  This resistance is and must be the most important mark of Christian freedom.”*

___________________
*Ernst Käsemann, On Being a Disciple of the Crucified Nazarene, xvii-xviii, xxi

Written by Jim

8 Feb 2018 at 5:28 am

Posted in Käsemann

International Septuagint Day: February 8

A few years ago Jim Aitken wrote

February 8th is “International Septuagint Day.” Bloggers will be reminding us why it is important to study the LXX, including its text-critical value, its witness to early biblical exegesis, and its place as the first Bible of the Church. Let me offer some other rarely cited reasons:

• It is the largest extant piece of Ptolemaic Greek.
• It is one of the major works of Egyptian Greek literature.
• It is one of the first works of Hellenistic Judaism, though mostly ignored in books on the subject.
• It is (possibly) the largest work of translation literature from antiquity, offering valuable insight for translation studies on both bilingual interference and translation technique.
• It is a work of sub-literary Greek that demonstrates the complexities of Greek register.
• It is a major lexical resource for lesser-known koine words. (not only illustrated by papyri, but illuminating for papyri).
• It testifies to a distinct Jewish-Greek (even Egyptian?) identity.
• It tells us much about educational levels in Egypt and among Jews.

(To understand its theology, we must place it in its context first).

http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/ioscs/feb8/

I’ll be taking part again and providing citations from the highly esteemed Göttingen Septuagint.

Written by Jim

8 Feb 2018 at 5:19 am

Posted in LXX