Americans don’t really care about bullying any more than they really care about gun violence. If decent people were in the majority, the laws would reflect that decency. America has indecent laws because it has indecent law makers because it has indecent voters.
ON December 10, 1522, Oecolampadius of Basel wrote to Zwingli a very friendly letter in which he expressed an even extravagant admiration of Zwingli, based entirely upon report, as he had never met him. This was the beginning of a frequent and intimate correspondence, for the two became true yoke-fellows in the cause of the Reformation. Though living in different cities their relation bears a resemblance to that between Luther and Melanchthon—in that Oecolampadius was Zwingli’s wise counsellor and efficient coadjutor, yet distinctly of secondary importance.
The first letter of Zwingli’s preserved from the year 1523, is to Oecolampadius. It is dated January 14th. He disclaims the latter’s praise, and with equal warmth commends his correspondent’s learning, piety, and zeal. To him he announces the “contest” which the Council had decreed, and rumour had it that John Faber, vicar-general of Constance, would be present. Then sarcastically he adds: “May God bring it about that he be not held back, so that Rome and Constance may not be defrauded of their accustomed triumphs … such as up to the present they have been able to carry off.”*
The ‘contest’ is of course the First Zurich Disputation. The best friendships are often forged in the furnace of conflict. That Zwingli and Oecolampadius had a true friendship is beyond question. And it all started with a letter.
*S. Jackson, Huldreich Zwingli: The Reformer of German Switzerland (1484–1531), pp. 179-180.
Our Saxon friends write
“Exsurge Domine” (Latin: Arise O Lord) is a papal bull issued on 15 June 1520 by Pope Leo X. It was written in response to the teachings of Martin Luther which opposed the views of the Church. It censured forty one propositions extracted from Luther’s 95 theses and subsequent writings, and threatened him with excommunication unless he recanted within a sixty-day period commencing upon the publication of the bull in Saxony and its neighboring regions. Luther refused to recant and responded instead by composing polemical tracts lashing out at the papacy and by publicly burning a copy of the bull on 10 December 1520.
Luther would be burning a lot of bull if he were alive today. A LOT.
A silly sad ridiculous absurdity. And the entire ‘mythicist’ enterprise is populated by equally absurd absurdities.
In a rather brief document presented by the leading theologians of the three Great Churches in Zurich, Zwingli and his colleagues offered the Cantonal authorities their advice as how to best address the issues of the Mass and Images in the Churches.
Though of not much significance to us, in the 16th century the reformation of the Mass and the issue of images were central to debates between Reformed and Roman.
Zwingli et al commence thusly concerning the mass:
Zum ersten ist ir meinung nit, daß dem fronlichnam und bluot Cristi Jesu hie nüt gemindert oder abzogen sölle oder möge werden, sonder daß er nach der uffsetzung Cristi und nüt anders geprucht werde; dann eß nit ein ding ist, von dem fronlichnam und bluot Cristi reden und von der mäß. Eß wirt ouch der nam der mäß und bruch im wort gottes niendert funden. Aber der bruch deß fronlichnams und bluots Cristi hat in dem offnen wort gottes grund und bruch. Wo ouch der fronlichnam und bluot Cristi und die mäß ein ding were, so volgte, daß ein ieder, so den fronlichnam und bluot Cristi nüsse, ouch mäß hielte; daß aber nit ist.
The advice of these three theologians was accepted and their suggestions enacted. Indeed, as Schaff opines
By these preparatory measures, public opinion was prepared for the practical application of the new ideas. The old order of worship had to be abolished before the new order could be introduced. The destruction was radical, but orderly. It was effected by the co-operation of the preachers and the civil magistracy, with the consent of the people.
It began at Pentecost, and was completed June 20, 1524.
In the presence of a deputation from the authorities of Church and State, accompanied by architects, masons and carpenters, the churches of the city were purged of pictures, relics, crucifixes, altars, candles, and all ornaments, the frescoes effaced, and the walls whitewashed, so that nothing remained but the bare building to be filled by a worshiping congregation. The pictures were broken and burnt, some given to those who had a claim, a few preserved as antiquities. The bones of the saints were buried. Even the organs were removed, and the Latin singing of the choir abolished, but fortunately afterwards replaced by congregational singing of psalms and hymns in the vernacular (in Basle as early as 1526, in St. Gall 1527, in Zurich in 1598).
“Within thirteen days,” says Bullinger, “all the churches of the city were cleared; costly works of painting and sculpture, especially a beautiful table in the Waterchurch, were destroyed. The superstitious lamented; but the true believers rejoiced in it as a great and joyous worship of God.”
In the following year the magistracy melted, sold, or gave away the rich treasures of the Great Minster and the Frauenminster,—chalices, crucifixes, and crosses of gold and silver, precious relics, clerical robes, tapestry, and other ornaments. In 1533 not a copper’s worth was left in the sacristy of the Great Minster.
Zwingli justified this vandalism by the practice of a conquering army to spike the guns and to destroy the forts and provisions of the enemy, lest he might be tempted to return.
The same work of destruction took place in the village churches in a less orderly way. Nothing was left but the bare buildings, empty, cold and forbidding.The Swiss Reformers proceeded on a strict construction of the second commandment as understood by Jews and Moslems. They regarded all kinds of worship paid to images and relics as a species of idolatry. They opposed chiefly the paganism of popery; while Luther attacked its legalistic Judaism, and allowed the pictures to remain as works of art and helps to devotion.
For the classical literature of Greece and Rome, however, Zwingli had more respect than Luther. It should be remarked also that he was not opposed to images as such any more than to poetry and music, but only to their idolatrous use in churches. In his reply to Valentin Compar of Uri (1525), he says, “The controversy is not about images which do not offend the faith and the honor of God, but about idols to which divine honors are paid. Where there is no danger of idolatry, the images may remain; but idols should not be tolerated. All the papists tell us that images are the books for the unlearned. But where has God commanded us to learn from such books?”
He thought that the absence of images in churches would tend to increase the hunger for the Word of God. The Swiss iconoclasm passed into the Reformed Churches of France, Holland, Scotland, and North America. In recent times a reaction has taken place, not in favor of image worship, which is dead and gone, but in favor of Christian art; and more respect is paid to the decency and beauty of the house of God and the comfort of worshipers.