Subtle Citation, Allusion, and Translation in the Hebrew Bible

Biblicists have long been aware that some compositions in the Bible cite and allude to other compositions. At times these practices are obvious; often, however, they are not. Essays in this volume focus on subtle, not-so-obvious, unrecognized cases of citation and allusion as well as on unrecognized ‘translations’ from other languages. Individual authors address unapparent cases and the methodological considerations on which their status as ‘genuine’ can be established. The essays in this volume are significant because of the methodological considerations and cautions that they describe and the varied texts that they analyze. Biblicists drawing on insights from this book will be able to provide thicker descriptions of Israelite literature and literacy and to construct relative chronologies of biblical compositions with greater accuracy than has been possible until now.

ISD, the North American distributor for Equinox, have sent a review copy.  More, naturally, in due course.

The Bee Stings The SBC’s Adoration of the Amendment

The Second Amendment, that is.

After a long, drawn-out internal battle, the Southern Baptist Convention narrowly voted to affirm the inerrancy of the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution at a special meeting called to settle the matter once and for all, sources confirmed Tuesday.

“The heart and soul of biblical Christianity is contained in the doctrine of the inerrancy and inspiration of the right of the people to keep and bear arms,” SBC President Steve Gaines said. “By choosing to affirm the verbal plenary inspiration of our right to bear arms as spelled out in the Constitution, Southern Baptists have ensured the spiritual vitality and endurance of its member churches.”

Gaines also said that churches that consider the Second Amendment as fallible are “chaff” destined to fade away as they continued to compromise core biblical beliefs like the necessity of owning a large and varied arsenal of weaponry, “and so they will fall into irrelevance.”

Many will rejoice that the great Idol is justly venerated…

Storm: Letter of Fire – My Review

The good folk who produced it have allowed me to review their very new film.

The technical details first:

  • Screenplay: Karen Holst Pellekaan
  • Director: Dennis Bots
  • Producers: Harro van Staverden Petra Goedings, Phanta Basta!
  • Co initiator: REFO500 Karla Apperloo, Herman Selderhuis
  • Coproducers: Iris Productions (LUX), Bulletproof Cupid (BE), NTR (NL)
  • Line Producer: Michiel Bartels
  • Cast: Davy Gomez, Juna de Leeuw, Yorick van Wageningen, Angela Schijf, Maarten Heijmans, Egbert Jan Weeber
  • Distributor NL: Dutch Filmworks
  • Release NL: January 2017

Very few historical dramas which have as their subject matter the beginnings of the Lutheran Reformation are as wonderfully produced as this fantastic film.  From the reconstruction of the 16th century cities to the costume design to the set decorations to the printing presses and everything in between this is a visual feast.  It’s, and I don’t used this word often or lightly, gorgeous.

The acting is superb and the dialogue is gripping and engaging.  The film is in Dutch but it is subtitled in English and those with a fairly good grasp of German will be able to follow much of the Dutch dialogue since the two languages overlap in numerous places.  But even those with only English will not lose a moment of the story as they read along.

Most important of all, at least for persons who care about historical accuracy, is the fact that the film brilliantly and thoroughly both grasps and exhibits a profound understanding of how the early years of the Reformation affected individual families.  Indeed, one of the highlights of the film is the tension provoked in nuclear families when mother and father have differing takes on subjects such as indulgences and purgatory.  Luther’s ideas caught on with some members of households and not others.  The dynamic interplay such a reality caused in houses is the highlight of the movie.

Historical accuracy was also on full display in the scenes depicting the printer’s workshop.  Printing was arduous, dirty, and often dangerous work.  And that fact is faithfully depicted.

The story told is of a young man, Storm, whose father was a printer and who found himself sympathetic with and willing to print materials by the outlaw Luther.  Arrested for his crime by the local authorities, the young man, and an exceedingly charming and delightful young female ‘street urchin’ he befriends have to do what they can to rescue Storm’s father.

It’s a lovely telling with a historically accurate and faithful delivery in wondrous cinematography the likes of which the best Hollywood blockbusters can’t match.  If you have the opportunity to see this film, you should.  It is worthy both of two thumbs up, five stars, and all the other accolades the critics award, and an Oscar too for Best Foreign Film of 2017.  At least as far as I’m concerned.

More from Tyndale About Their Greek New Testament

“Knowledge of documents should precede final judgement upon readings.” Useful though this adage by Westcott and Hort is, it is also a little bit of an open door: lots of things should precede ‘final judgement’ (and when is anything ‘final’ in our discipline?) But what are the things that one needs to know about a document? It seems to me that ‘knowledge of documents’ includes also ‘knowledge of its readings’. Because manuscripts are not just characterised by their appearance, their dating, and their paratextual apparatus, first and foremost they are carriers of a text with a specific wording.

Etc.

Fun Facts From Church History: The Caroli Affair

calvin_bookAt the conclusion of the whole sordid affair (about which you can read in Schaff’s history),

Caroli was deprived of his functions by the synod. The great council of Berne confirmed this sentence; pronounced Farel, Calvin, and Viret innocent of the charges brought against them; condemned Caroli to banishment as guilty of slander and other excesses; and remitted the cause to the consistory to be formally terminated.

As the presumptuous doctor was unwilling to submit to that authority, the parties were summoned before the civil magistrates (avoyers) and the councils. Calvin, Farel, and Viret accordingly presented themselves, June 6, but Caroli did not appear.

An usher, sent by the lords of Berne to seek him, brought word that he had disappeared. He had in fact fled early in the morning, and had taken the road to Soleure. From that place he withdrew into France, to the cardinal of Tournon, the great enemy of the Reformation.

The latter obtained absolution for Caroli from the pope. The wretched man had hoped that, by returning into the Roman Church, he should get a good benefice; but he found that he was held in equal contempt by Catholics and Protestants.

To close the affair, it was agreed to approve the terms Trinity, substance, and persons (Calvin himself had made use of them); but at the same time that if any pious man declined to employ them, ‘he should not be cast out of the Church, nor should be looked on as one who thought wrongly as to the faith.’

And then this very interesting remark in our author-

This episode in Calvin’s life shows us not only his firm attachment to the truth, which everyone acknowledges, but likewise a spirit of freedom which is ordinarily denied to him. It is clear that with him the Word of God stood before all, and that the faith, the life, and essence of Christianity had more value in his eyes than mere traditional terms, which are not to be found in the Scriptures.*

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*History of the reformation in Europe in the time of Calvin (Vol. 6, pp. 383–384).

Farel’s Reaction to Calvin’s Death

farelSchaff relates

Farel, then in his eightieth year, came all the way from Neuchâtel to bid Calvin farewell, although Calvin had written to him not to put himself to that trouble. He desired to die in his place.

Ten days after Calvin’s death, he wrote to Fabri (June 6, 1564):

“Oh, why was not I taken away in his place, while he might have been spared for many years of health to the service of the Church of our Lord Jesus Christ! Thanks be to Him who gave me the exceeding grace to meet this man and to hold him against his will in Geneva, where he has labored and accomplished more than tongue can tell. In the name of God, I then pressed him and pressed him again to take upon himself a burden which appeared to him harder than death, so that he at times asked me for God’s sake to have pity on him and to allow him to serve God in a manner which suited his nature. But when he recognized the will of God, he sacrificed his own will and accomplished more than was expected from him, and surpassed not only others, but even himself. Oh, what a glorious course has he happily finished!”