OF THE CONDITION OF FALLEN MAN
1. But after our first parent did contrary to what God had commanded, (Rom. 5.) he incurred the penalty appointed by God, and lost the most fair gift of original righteousness. Hence there was a want of this righteousness, (Eph. 2.,) together with a vicious habit of concupiscence, which is perpetually at war with the spirit and the higher powers of the soul. This sin, (i.e., the privation of that righteousness by which it rendered the reason subject to God,) together with concupiscence, he propagated to all his posterity, so that all men whatsoever that come into this world (Job 25.) are born with it, and none is free from it, not even the child of one day, according to the Scriptures.
2. Hence that wound of our nature, that the animal man perceives not the things which are spirit, (1 Cor. 2.,) nor before grace desires and freely chooses the same, seeing that the concupiscence and affection of the flesh which rule in him are enmity against God, and abhorrent from the law of God, (Rom. 8.,) and impede him the more in good, the more they impel him to evil.
3. And though such a man retains freedom of will, though weak and injured, and from it as from a fountain both the moral virtues of the heathen, and the actings of these (virtues) flow, yet before the grace of God and renovation he cannot aspire to a righteousness which is valid before God, but is rather the slave of sin, the bondman of Satan, the enemy of God, and liable to the evils of this world: for he is pressed by hunger, thirst, cold, heat, pain, disease, and is at last overcome by death itself. For by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin. (Rom. 5.) But then punishments of that first transgression are common to the regenerate as well as sinners. In the case of the former, however, they are employed by God for discipline, whereas they are inflicted as punishment on the unrighteous and ungodly.
4. And that in man thus depraved by original sin, so long as nature only continues and is not renewed by grace, along with depraved concupiscence Satan also reigns, who holds him bound with the chains of his slavery, and works in him so that he corresponds in his desires, doing the will and mind of the flesh, and crowns the original sin which he drew from his parents with actual sins, and is, as the Apostle says, (Eph. 2.,) a child of wrath, so that if he dies in this his most wretched condition, being at length thrown into hell by the just judgment of God, he there suffers eternal punishments, so that, as it is written by Isaiah, neither is his fire extinguished nor does his worm die. (Isaiah 66.) – John Calvin